The NAD Team has come up with a list of honors that can possibly be earned at home during the COVID-19 shut-down.
Check it out!
El liderazgo de la División Norteamericana he creado una lista de especialidades que posiblemente se pueden desarrollar en casa durante la cuarentena del COVID-19.
¡Búsquelo aquí!

Difference between revisions of "Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Arts and Crafts/Soap Craft"

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An alkali, a fat, and additives are used to make soap. An alkali such as lye or potash is used. Lye makes a harder soap bar and potash makes a softer soap. A fat such as lard, coconut oil, or palm oil is a main ingredient in soap. Finally, additives are used in  soap. This may include such things as aloe, fragrance, and honey. []
An alkali, a fat, and water. An alkali such as lye or potash is used. Lye makes a harder soap bar and potash makes a softer soap. A fat such as lard, coconut oil, or palm oil.  Water or a substance containing water is also used (milk, fruit juice...).  These are the main ingredient in soap.
==3. What is the difference between soap and detergent?== <!--T:5-->
==3. What is the difference between soap and detergent?== <!--T:5-->

Revision as of 22:44, 23 October 2020

Other languages:
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Soap Craft
North American Division

Arts and Crafts
See also Soap Craft - Advanced

Skill Level 1
Year of Introduction: 1964

Earning this honor meets a requirement for:

The requirements below are for the North American Division NAD tiny.png. This honor has different requirements for the General Conference GC tiny.png.

1. What is soap?

It is a substance that you use with water for washing yourself or sometimes for washing clothes. [1]

2. What three ingredients are necessary used to make soap?

An alkali, a fat, and water. An alkali such as lye or potash is used. Lye makes a harder soap bar and potash makes a softer soap. A fat such as lard, coconut oil, or palm oil. Water or a substance containing water is also used (milk, fruit juice...). These are the main ingredient in soap.

3. What is the difference between soap and detergent?

Soaps are made from natural ingredients and detergents are made from man made derivatives. Soap needs to be rinsed in clear water or it will leave a film. Detergents do not leave any residue. Soaps need warmwater to work. Detergents work well in any water temperature. [2]

  • A soap is a natural fatty substance (called fatty acids) which has been reacted with lye (sodium hydroxide).
  • A detergent is any type of cleaner which does not contain a soap as its main ingredient.

4. What is the difference in toilet soaps and non-toilet soaps?

A toilet soap are used in a domestic setting, "soap" usually refers to what is technically called a toilet soap, used for household and personal cleaning. Non-toilet soaps are components of many lubricating greases and thickeners. Greases are usually mixtures of calcium soap or lithium soap and mineral oil. There are many any other metallic soaps, such as aluminium or sodium. These soaps are used as thickeners to increase the viscosity of oils.

5. Name three uses of non-toilet soaps.

They are used as a lubricating agents in grease and as thickners. Artist paints use them as a thickner controling the flow of the paint. Non-toilet lithium soaps are used as components of lithium grease (white lithium)used as a form-release agents at relatively high temperatures. Aluminum soap is used chiefly in lubricating greases, in protective coatings, and in waterproofing compositions.

6. Discuss how toilet soaps work to clean.

The structure of soap molecules enables them to remove dirt with ease. They consist of a hydrocarbon chain, with a sodium or potassium atom at the end. The hydrocarbon end is attracted to oil and repels water, whereas the other end attracts water. When you wash your hands, oily dirt particles are surrounded by soap molecules with their water-loving heads facing outwards. This breaks up the dirt and lets it wash away in the water. [3]

7. Research the history and origin of soap. Answer the following questions:

See the history in the General Conference version of the Soap Craft Honor. [[4]]

a. What is the oldest record of soap?

Soap making was known as early as 2800B.C. [[5]]

b. In what context is soap mentioned in the Bible?

It is mentioned in Jeremiah 2:22 in the context that soap cannot wash away the stain of our guilt. In Malachi 3:2, soap is mentioned in the context of the Lord's coming. At that time Jesus will be a cleansing agent like a laundry soap. [6]

c. How did WWI affect soap production?

The chemistry of soap manufacturing stayed essentially the same until 1916. During World War I and again in World War II, there was a shortage of animal and vegetable fats and oils that were used in making soap. Chemists had to use other raw materials instead, which were “synthesized” into chemicals with similar properties. These are what are known today as “detergents.” [7]

8. What is soap scum?

Scum is the substance which results from the reaction of the hardness mineral in water with common household soaps. Evident as a bath tub ring or on shower doors.

9. Carve an object from a bar of soap.

Here are some pathfinder soap carvings for examples.

You can buy multipacks of soap at reasonable prices at large "warehouse" type stores such as Costco or Sam's Club, or at large retailers such as Target or Walmart. Ivory soap works pretty well for this, though you may wish to check that none of your Pathfinders are allergic to it before you buy it.

Start by tracing the design onto the bar of soap, etching the lines lightly into the soap with a pointed stick or the tip of a knife. Instruct your Pathfinders on knife safety before handing out the knives:

  1. Do not draw the knife towards yourself - cut away from your body.
  2. Pick up a knife by its handle
  3. Be aware that folding knives can close when under pressure.
  4. Offer a knife's handle to another person when handing it to another person.

Once the design is etched into the soap, begin removing the soap that does not belong there. Do not remove huge chunks all at once or the soap may break. You can also use the knife to drill holes in the soap.

10. Decorate a bar of soap for a gift.

Soap can be decorated by attaching ribbons with pins. You can also use pins to attach photos (crop them first), pictures cut from magazines, buttons, doilies, etc. Be creative! Pay attention to the colors of the materials you attach to the soap compared to the color of the soap itself. Soap need not be carved before decorating, but it may help to cut any lettering (such as the brand's logo) off before attaching pictures.

If you have pictures to contribute, we'd love to add them to this chapter. Just click the "talk" link at the top of the page!