Difference between revisions of "Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Nature/Fishes"

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(a.Dorsal fin)
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[[Image:Lampanyctodes hectoris (Hector's lanternfish)2.png|thumb|350px|''Lampanyctodes hectoris'' <br><small>
 
[[Image:Lampanyctodes hectoris (Hector's lanternfish)2.png|thumb|350px|''Lampanyctodes hectoris'' <br><small>
 
(1) - operculum (gill cover), (2) - lateral line, (3) - dorsal fin, (4) - adipose fin, (5) - caudal peduncle, (6) - caudal fin, (7) - anal fin, (8) - photophores, (9) - pelvic fins (paired), (10) - pectoral fins (paired)</small>]]
 
(1) - operculum (gill cover), (2) - lateral line, (3) - dorsal fin, (4) - adipose fin, (5) - caudal peduncle, (6) - caudal fin, (7) - anal fin, (8) - photophores, (9) - pelvic fins (paired), (10) - pectoral fins (paired)</small>]]
===a.Dorsal fin===
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===a. Dorsal fin===
 
A dorsal fin is a fin located on the backs of fishes, whales, dolphins and porpoises, as well as the (extinct) ichthyosaurs. Its main purpose is to stabilise the animal against rolling and assist in sudden turns. Some animals have developed dorsal fins with protective functions, such as spines or venom. Many catfish can lock the leading ray of the dorsal fin in an extended position to discourage predation or to wedge themselves into a crevice.
 
A dorsal fin is a fin located on the backs of fishes, whales, dolphins and porpoises, as well as the (extinct) ichthyosaurs. Its main purpose is to stabilise the animal against rolling and assist in sudden turns. Some animals have developed dorsal fins with protective functions, such as spines or venom. Many catfish can lock the leading ray of the dorsal fin in an extended position to discourage predation or to wedge themselves into a crevice.
 
Dorsal fins come in a variety of shapes and sizes.
 
Dorsal fins come in a variety of shapes and sizes.

Revision as of 00:46, 24 December 2006

Template:Honor header

1. Name ten families of fishes.

1 Engraulidae- Anchovies (tastes great on Pizzas!)

Japanese Anchovy


2 Percidae - Perch

Yellow Perch



3 Salmonidae - Salmon and Trout

Rainbow Trout



4 Acipenseridae - Sturgeons (can live up to 100 years!)

Sturgeon


5 Syngnathidae - Seahorses and pipefish

Seahorse


6 Percichtyidae - Temperate Basses

Smallmouth Bass


7 Centrarchidae - Sunfishes

Sunfish (Enneacanthus chaetdon)


8 Ciprinidae - Carp and Minnows

9 Plueronectidae - Right-eyed Flounders

10 Pocilidae - Livebearers (Mollies, Guppies)

2. Identify from pictures or personal observation ten tropical fishes.

a. Explain their breeding habits.

b. Give the habitat or country in which they are found.

3. Identify from pictures or personal observation ten fishes native to your own country. Explain their feeding and breeding habits.

4. Define the following parts of a fish:

Lampanyctodes hectoris
(1) - operculum (gill cover), (2) - lateral line, (3) - dorsal fin, (4) - adipose fin, (5) - caudal peduncle, (6) - caudal fin, (7) - anal fin, (8) - photophores, (9) - pelvic fins (paired), (10) - pectoral fins (paired)

a. Dorsal fin

A dorsal fin is a fin located on the backs of fishes, whales, dolphins and porpoises, as well as the (extinct) ichthyosaurs. Its main purpose is to stabilise the animal against rolling and assist in sudden turns. Some animals have developed dorsal fins with protective functions, such as spines or venom. Many catfish can lock the leading ray of the dorsal fin in an extended position to discourage predation or to wedge themselves into a crevice. Dorsal fins come in a variety of shapes and sizes.

b. Pectoral fin

The paired pectoral fins are located on each side, usually just behind the operculum, and are homologous to the forelimbs of tetrapods. A peculiar function of pectoral fins, highly developed in some fish, is the creation of the dynamic lifting force that assists, e.g., sharks, in maintaining depths and enables the flight for flying fish.

c. Pelvic fin

The paired pelvic or ventral fins are located ventrally below the pectoral fins. They are homologous to the hindlimbs of tetrapods.

d. Anal fin

The anal fin is located on the ventral surface behind the anus. This fin is used to stabilize the fish while swimming.

e. Caudal fin

The caudal fin is the tail fin, located at the end of the caudal peduncle.

f. Lateral line

The lateral line is a sense organ used to detect movement and vibration in the surrounding water. It consists of a line of receptors running along each side of the fish.

g. Operculum

The operculum of a bony fish is the hard bony flap covering and protecting the gills. In most fish, the rear edge of the operculum roughly marks the division between the head and the body. The operculum is composed of four bones; the opercle, preopercle, interopercle, and subopercle. The morphology of this anatomical feature varies greatly between species. For example, the bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) has a posteriorly and dorsally oriented rounded extension with a small black splotch present. In some species, the operculum can push water from the buccal cavity through the gills. For some fish, the operculum is vital in obtaining oxygen. It opens as the mouth closes, causing the pressure inside the fish to drop. Water then flows towards the lower pressure across the fish's gill lamellae, allowing some oxygen to be absorbed from the water. Cartilaginous fishes do not have an operculum. Without an operculum, other methods of getting water to the gills are required, such as ventilation.

h. Barbels

The head may have several fleshy structures known as barbels, which may be very long and resemble whiskers.

i. Swim bladder

The gas bladder, or swim bladder, is an internal organ that contributes to the ability of a fish to control its buoyancy, and thus to stay at the current water depth, ascend, or descend without having to waste energy in swimming. It is often absent in fast swimming fishes such as the Tuna and Mackerel families.

j. Gills

The gills, located under the operculum, are a respiratory organ for the extraction of oxygen from water and for the excretion of carbon dioxide. They are not usually visible, but can be seen in some species eg the frilled shark.

5. State briefly the proper care and feeding of fishes of:

a. Tropical zone

b. Temperate zone.

6. Fill an aquarium containing at least five gallons of water with a balance of plants and fishes, either tropical or native, and maintain the same for at least six months.

7. Note the effect of the following on the fishes and aquarium in general:

a. Too much light

b. Too little light

c. Overfeeding

d. Excessive change in water temperature

Rapid changes in water temperatures stress your fish. when fish are stressed they are more suceptable to disease and sickness.

e. Too few plants and too many fishes

Fish need plants in the wild for shelter, food, filtration, and oxygen. In an aquarium you supply their main source of food

References

When to use 'fish' or 'fishes'. Use 'fish' when talking about a school of the same species, use 'fishes' when talking about schools of different species. Any time you are talking about more than one species, use 'fishes'. http://www.amonline.net.au/fishes/what/fish.htm