| General Conference
|| Skill Level 2
Year of Introduction: 2006
This Honor is a component of the Modern Technology Master Award.
Investiture Achievement requirements for RANGER Spiritual Discovery which require a discussion of the World Wide Web in line with Requirements #5 and #8 of this Honor.
1. Define the following terms:
A vast collection of many independent, inter-connected computer networks that use the TCP/IP protocols and that developed from ARPANet of the late '60s and early '70s. "The Net," is a worldwide system of computer networks providing reliable and redundant connectivity between disparate computers and systems by using common transport and data protocols.
b. World Wide Web (WWW)
Though World Wide Web (or simply Web for short) is a term frequently used (incorrectly) when referring to "The Internet", it has two major meanings: First, loosely used: the whole constellation of resources that can be accessed using Gopher, FTP, HTTP, telnet, USENET, WAIS and some other tools. Second, the universe of hypertext servers (HTTP servers), more commonly called "web servers", which are the servers that serve web pages to web browsers.
c. Chat Room:
A site on the World Wide Web where any number of computer users can type in messages to each other (chat) in real time, creating an online conversation. These messages usually appear on an area of the screen next to the user’s nickname or handle (your online nickname or the name you go by in a chat room). Most chat rooms have a particular topic (which you are expected to discuss) but there are some that are purely for meeting other people.
To copy a file from a remote computer to your computer. There are a few methods of doing this on the Internet. HTTP, FTP and e-mail attachments are the most common. This term is also used when referring to moving pictures from a camera or other image device to a local computer.
To move a digital file (such as a media file) from a local system to a server where it is stored for others to access or later retrieval. For example, web pages must be "uploaded" to a web server for them to be viewed on the World Wide Web. The terminology for "upload" and "download" comes from the days of satellite communications. When an earth-bound terminal send data to the remote computer (the satellite), it was uploaded, as the direction of data travel was up. When the terminal received data from the satellite, it was downloaded, as the directin of data travel was down.
One or more files (pages) stored on a computer (a "server") that can be accessed via the Internet. Every website has a "home page", which is generally designed as the file visitors first see when coming to the site and which gives an idea of the site's contents. All files on a website usually contain textual or graphical "links" that can be clicked using an input device such as a mouse to move to other files, either within the site or on another one.
Email is similar to personal letters, only a lot faster. Email is used to send messages via your computer to friends and acquaintances around the world. Requires a computer, email software, an email account through an Internet Service Provider (ISP) and a modem. Technically, email (electronic mail) is the exchange of computer-stored messages by telecommunication. Most email messages usually contain text, but you can also send non-text files, such as graphic images and sound files as attachments. Email accounts for a large percentage of the total traffic over the Internet. An email address is easily identified by the '@' symbol, for instance firstname.lastname@example.org, making identification of the domain it's attached to much easier - in this case pathfindersonline.org
Throughout this honor, the term “virus” represents the traditional virus, as well as trojans, worms, and other malicious code.
- Traditional virus
- In computer security technology, a virus is a self-replicating program that spreads by inserting copies of itself into other executable code or documents. Thus, a computer virus behaves in a way similar to a biological virus, which spreads by inserting itself into living cells. Extending the analogy, the insertion of the virus into a program is termed infection, and the infected file (or executable code that is not part of a file) is called a host.
- named after the Trojan horse used by the rescuers of Helen of Troy. A Trojan is a computer program that disguises itself as a useful software application that is actually used to gain access to your computer.
- A computer worm is a self-replicating computer program. It uses a network to send copies of itself to other nodes (computers on the network) and it may do so without any user intervention. This is due to the poor security the computers infected have. Unlike a virus, it does not need to attach itself to an existing program. Worms almost always cause at least some harm to the network, if only by consuming bandwidth, whereas viruses almost always corrupt or modify files on a targeted computer.
2. Define the following terms and give examples of each:
a.Webmail / POP3 / IMAP mail
All are methods / techniques for reading email.
- Webmail is a web application that allows users to read and write e-mail using a web browser. Examples: Hotmail.com, yahoo.com and many other online services offer you the option to view your email from their website. This is "webmail."
- POP3 mail
- Post Office Protocol 3. A protocol that provides a simple, standardized way for users to access mailboxes and download messages to their computers. Examples: Outlook Express, Outlook, Eudora, Mozilla Thunderbird*
- Internet Message Access Protocol'. IMAP is a method of distributing e-mail. It is different from the standard POP3 method in that with IMAP, e-mail messages are stored on the server, while in POP3, the messages are transferred to the client's computer when they are read. Thus, using IMAP allows you to access your e-mail from more than one machine, while POP3 does not. This is important because some email servers only work with some protocols. Example: AOL is an IMAP mail provider, though they also offer webmail services.*
These examples are accurate as of 10/2005. Please check Google.com or other search service to verify the accuracy of these examples currently.
b. Web browser
A program used to view, download, upload, surf or otherwise access documents (pages) on the World Wide Web. Browsers can be text-based meaning they do not show graphics or images but most however are text and graphical based. Browsers read "marked up" or coded pages (usually HTML but not always) that reside on servers and interpret the coding into what we see "rendered" as a Web page. Examples: Microsoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, and Apple Safari are examples of Web browsers.
c. IRC/IM (Instant Messenger) client
Internet Relay Chat. A live chat area of the Internet in which real-time conversations among two or more people take place via special software. Each specific IRC channel begins with a # and is dedicated to a different area of interest. IRC is considered another part of the technology of the Internet the same way FTP, Telnet and the Web are.
An instant messenger is a client which allows instant text communication between two or more people through a network such as the Internet.
Examples include Windows Messenger, AOL Instant Messenger, ICQ client, Yahoo Messenger, and Jabber, as well as software programs that allow you to talk to friends on multiple “messenger” platforms simultaneously.
d. Streaming Media
Video or audio transmitted over a network that users can begin to play immediately instead of waiting for the entire file to download. Typically a few seconds of data is sent ahead and buffered in case of network transmission delays. (Although some data is buffered to the hard drive, it is written to temporary storage and is gone once viewing is complete.) RealMedia, QuickTime and Windows Media are the most common streaming formats.
e. Search Engine & Search Directories
Internet search engines (e.g. Google, Bing) help users find web pages on a given subject. The search engines maintain databases of web sites and use programs (often referred to as "spiders" or "bots") to collect information, which is then indexed by the search engine. Similar services are provided by "directories," which maintain ordered lists of websites, e.g. Yahoo!
f. Antivirus software
A computer program designed to detect and respond to malicious software, such as viruses and worms. Responses may include blocking user access to infected files, cleaning infected files or systems, or informing the user that an infected program was detected. Such tools should be included as part of the computing systems environment that the web services are delivered from. Examples include Norton Antivirus, McAfee Antivirus, Trendmicro Antivirus. Online FREE antivirus tools includes Trendmicro's Housecall, and freea-v.com .
- Many of these companies also offer "Internet Security Suites" that assist the user in also blocking and removing trojans, worms, malware, and other malicious code.
1. ^ These software programs are leaders in antivirus technology as of 10/2005. Please check with online resources or local computer/office supply stores for the latest versions and programs available.
A system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network. Firewalls can be implemented in both hardware and software, or a combination of both. Firewalls are frequently used to prevent unauthorized Internet users from accessing private networks connected to the Internet, especially intranets. All messages entering or leaving the intranet pass through the firewall, which examines each message and blocks those that do not meet the specified security criteria.
Examples include: ZoneAlarm, Microsoft Firewall, Norton Firewall, and many other free and for-pay packages.
3. Complete one of the following:
a. Write a brief 250-300 word history of the Internet.
Include date/events surrounding its origin, the major landmark events, the birth and growth of web browsers (such as Mosaic, Netscape, Internet Explorer), and what it is doing today. Remember, this is not a history of computers, but rather a brief history of the Internet. You should list at least 2 online resources from which you found information relevant to your report.
b. Present a 2-3 minute talk concerning the history of the internet.
If you choose this option, you will need to present the same information as in option a. It's OK to use notecards during the oral presentation so that you can follow your outline and not have to memorize dates and other facts.
4. Why is antivirus software important? Include in your answer:
a. What are some ways you can receive viruses via the Internet?
- Opening an email attachment which was sent by an unknown contact.
- Clicking on a "pop-up" ad in a web page.
- Downloading from the Internet any file that contains a virus.
b. How is having up-to-date antivirus software important for keeping your computer files safe?
The authors of virus and anti-virus programs are in a continual game of cat-and-mouse. Virus authors are constantly figuring out new ways to get around anti-virus programs, and anti-virus programs are continually updated to thwart the new viruses. The most successful virus programs are the ones most recently developed. If you do not keep your anti-virus software program up-to-date, your computer is vulnerable to the newest viruses.
c. How can not being protected lead to sharing the virus with other family and friends?
We might share a file to our friends or family through an email or device without knowing that the file contains virus. The virus might damage our friend's or family's computer or even thumb drive that we use to share files that might contain virus.
d. What harm can a virus do to your computer or to other people’s computers?
Viruses can damage your files in the computer including software. The damaged software contains a copy of the virus, and can then spread to other computers. Many viruses will consume computing power on the host, bogging it down and making it unresponsive. They can attempt to infect other machines over the network, consuming the network's bandwidth and slowing down the Internet connection for all other users in the building (even computers that are not infected).
Many viruses completely take over the computer they infect and can be remotely controlled by the attacker. These attackers can then use the computer to send spam, or mount a Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack against their target's web server or computer network. Sometimes these viruses record keystrokes on the infected computer so that they can capture usernames, passwords, and bank account numbers. This information can then be forwarded to the attacker who can either use the information or sell it to someone else.
5. In what ways do content filters(programs like Net Nanny™ or AOL Parental Control) protect your family? With your family, develop & sign a Covenant of Family Internet Usage including the following elements:
- a. Never reveal personal information
- b. Remember that people may not be who they say they are.
- c. Never meet an online friend in the flesh for the first time without a parent present.
- d. Never respond to flames
- e. Stop immediately if you see or read anything that upsets you.
- f.Time each member of the family may spend on the internet per week. Set boundaries that encourage time for family, homework, and other necessary family activities.
- g. Types of websites that are acceptable/unacceptable to view. What are the principles that your family will use to determine what are acceptable? Base these principles on the Bible.
An agreement ready to sign has been prepared for you on the third page of the pdf of the Internet Honor requirements on the Pathfinders website: http://www.pathfindersonline.org/pdf/ayhonors/internet_a.pdf
a. Visit at least 3 different websites (distinct domain names). Print out the front page of each site for your instructor.
To save paper, it is recommended that rather than printing hard-copies of web pages, that the Pathfinder open the three web pages in separate tabs in the browser. A tab can be opened usually by right-clicking on the link and selecting the "Open page in another tab" option. In Firefox, clicking the link with the center mouse button (or using both the left and right buttons at the same time) will open the page in a new tab. Once three tabs have been opened, the instructor can check that the requirement has been met on-screen, without printing anything.
b. Demonstrate your ability to use a search engine to find an online Bible website. Go to the website, look up at least 3 different Bible memory texts in 3 different versions, and print your results for your instructor. Also, find 3 websites that talk about the Seventh-day Adventist Church. Print out the front page of each site for your instructor.
- i. http://www.biblegateway.com is a great online bible resources, as is http://www.blueletterbible.org .
- ii. http://www.bible.com is another great Bible site with many versions in multiple languages.
- iii. There are thousands of quality Adventist websites, many of them referenced at http://www.plusline.org. Quality sites of interest to young adventists include:
c. Download a compressed file from the internet (tar, zip, etc.) to your hard drive and uncompress it and operate the program or file.
- i. Please use safe sites to download from, such as CNET’s download.com
7. Demonstrate your ability to use email by demonstrating the following (If necessary, create an email account, with a distinct username and password):
a. Create and send email
b. Receive and download email
c. Download/view an attachment
d. Know 5 principles of operating email safely.
- Do not reply to unknown emails or Spam. You’re simply verifying that yours is a “real” email address and you will immediately receive even more junk email.
- Do not open emails with attachments unless you are SURE that they’re okay, and that your antivirus program is fully updated (most are auto-updated these days).
- Report any material sent to you in email that is unsafe or that you feel breaks God’s laws.
- Never respond to "unsubscribe" directions in a spam or UCE (unwanted commercial email) message.
- Keep your computers operating system patches up to date. If you're using Windows, do this from the MS Windows Update site using the Windows Update function.
8. Memorize Philippians 4:8. How does this Bible text guide a Christian’s use of the internet?
- “Finally, brothers, whatever is true, whatever is noble, whatever is right, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is admirable——if anything is excellent or praiseworthy——think about such things.” Philippians 4:8
Some questions to guide a small group discussion on this text:
- What do you think the writer, the apostle Paul, would say this text meant for internet users today?
- What do you think God had in mind when he asked Paul to write down this text?
- What are some things on the internet that you make use of that match (are consistent with) this Bible text?
- What are some of the things that are on the internet that do not match (are inconsistent) with this Bible message?
- Why do you think this text is important to Christians today?
- What are some ways that we as a club can help each other apply this text to our daily lives?
- What do you think are some ways we can live lives that match (are consistent) with this text?
About the Author
Mark O'Ffill is a member of the NAD Honors Committee and submitted the 2006 requirements for the Computer and Advanced Computer Honors. He also is the author of the Internet and Internet Advanced NAD AY Honors.
Mark was the webmaster for the 1999 and 2004 NAD International Pathfinder Camporees, serving for over seven years in that capacity, providing the Camporee community with an online informational resource.
At the writing of this biography, Mark is the Religion and Computer Teacher at Pacific Union College Preparatory School in Angwin, CA. He also serves as Registrar and Information Technology Services guy for this institution. He has been a staff member at PUC Prep since 2003.
"Pastor Mark" is an ordained minister, and served for almost five years as a youth pastor in Florida. He is a 6th generation Seventh-day Adventist pastor, and loves studying Adventist history.
Mark is an avid Pathfinder, serving as a Pathfinder staff member since the age of fifteen, when he was the youngest Director in the North America Division. Since 2004, he has been the Area 9 Area Coordinator for the Northern California Conference of Seventh-day Adventists. He loves earning Pathfinder honors and mentoring staff members in creative teaching methods they can use in teaching Pathfinders.