Difference between revisions of "Field Guide/Birds/Pandion haliaetus"

From Pathfinder Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
m (Reverted edits by 71.168.44.122 (talk) to last version by 67.84.53.191)
m (89 revisions: re-import from WB, including edit history)
 
(29 intermediate revisions by 14 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
{{otheruses}}
+
{{Bird id
{{Taxobox
+
| color = pink
+
 
| name = Osprey
 
| name = Osprey
| status = LC
+
| latin_name = Pandion haliaetus
| image = OspreyNASA.jpg
+
| level = 4
| image_width = 250px
+
| image_1 = OspreyNASA.jpg
| image_caption = A North American Osprey preparing to dive.
+
| caption_1 = A North American Osprey preparing to dive.
| regnum = [[Animal]]ia
+
| call = Pandion_haliaetus.ogg‎
| phylum = [[Chordate|Chordata]]
+
| description = The '''Osprey''', ''Pandion haliaetus'' is a medium-large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution. It occurs in all continents except Antarctica, but in South America only as a non-breeding migrant. It is often known by other colloquial names such as '''fishhawk''', '''seahawk''' or '''Fish Eagle'''.
| classis = [[Bird|Aves]]
+
| ordo = [[Falconiformes]]
+
| familia = '''Pandionidae'''
+
| familia_authority = [[Philip Sclater|Sclater]] & [[Osbert Salvin|Salvin]], 1873
+
| genus = '''''Pandion'''''
+
| genus_authority = [[Marie Jules César Savigny|Savigny]], 1809
+
| species = '''''P. haliaetus'''''
+
| binomial = ''Pandion haliaetus''
+
| binomial_authority = ([[Carolus Linnaeus|Linnaeus]], 1758)
+
}}
+
  
The '''Osprey''', ''Pandion haliaetus'' is a medium-large [[bird of prey|raptor]] which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution. It occurs in all continents except [[Antarctica]], but in [[South America]] only as a non-breeding [[bird migration|migrant]]. It is often known by other [[colloquial]] names such as '''fishhawk''', '''seahawk''' or '''Fish Eagle'''.
+
The Osprey is {{units|52-60 cm| 20.5-23.6 inches}} long with a {{units|152-167 cm|5-5.5 ft}} wingspan. It has mainly white underparts and head, apart from a dark mask through the eye, and fairly uniformly brown upperparts. Its short tail and long, narrow wings with four long "finger" feathers (and a shorter fifth) give it a very distinctive appearance.
 
+
The Osprey is a species with many unique characteristics, and therefore has been given its own [[taxonomy|taxonomic]] [[genus]], ''Pandion'', and [[family (biology)|family]], ''Pandionidae''.
+
 
+
==Description==
+
The Osprey is 52-60 [[centimetre]]s (20.5-23.6 [[inch|in]]) long with a 152-167 cm (5-5.5 [[foot|ft]]) wingspan. It has mainly white underparts and head, apart from a dark mask through the eye, and fairly uniformly brown upperparts. Its short tail and long, narrow wings with four long "finger" feathers (and a shorter fifth) give it a very distinctive appearance.
+
  
 
Juvenile birds are readily identified by the buff fringes to the upperpart plumage, buff tone to the underparts, and streaked crown. By spring, wear on the upperparts makes barring on the underwings and flight feathers a better indicator of young birds. Adult males can be distinguished from females from their slimmer bodies and narrower wings. They also have a weaker or non-existent breast band than the female, and more uniformly pale underwing coverts. It is straightforward to sex a breeding pair, but harder with individual birds.
 
Juvenile birds are readily identified by the buff fringes to the upperpart plumage, buff tone to the underparts, and streaked crown. By spring, wear on the upperparts makes barring on the underwings and flight feathers a better indicator of young birds. Adult males can be distinguished from females from their slimmer bodies and narrower wings. They also have a weaker or non-existent breast band than the female, and more uniformly pale underwing coverts. It is straightforward to sex a breeding pair, but harder with individual birds.
  
In flight, Ospreys have arched wings and drooping "hands", giving them a diagnostic [[gull|gull-like]] appearance. The call is a series of sharp whistles, ''cheep'', ''cheep'', or ''yewk'', ''yewk''. Near the nest, a frenzied ''cheereek''!
+
In flight, Ospreys have arched wings and drooping "hands", giving them a diagnostic gull-like appearance. The call is a series of sharp whistles, ''cheep'', ''cheep'', or ''yewk'', ''yewk''. Near the nest, a frenzied ''cheereek''!
 
+
{{Listen
+
|filename=Pandion haliaetus.ogg
+
|title=''Pandion haliaetus'' call
+
|description=Bird call of the Osprey (''Pandion haliaetus'')
+
|format=[[Ogg]]}}
+
 
+
==Classification==
+
The Osprey differs in several respects from the other [[Diurnal_animal|diurnal]] birds of prey, and has always presented something of a riddle to taxonomists. Here it is treated as the sole member of the family '''Pandionidae''', and the family listed in its traditional place as part of the order [[Falconiformes]]. Other schemes place it alongside the hawks and eagles in the family [[Accipitridae]]—which itself can be regarded as making up the bulk of the order [[Accipitriformes]] or else be lumped with the [[Falconidae]] into [[Falconiformes]]. The [[Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy]] has placed it together with the other diurnal raptors in a greatly enlarged [[Ciconiiformes]], but this has more recently turned out to result in an unnatural [[paraphyletic]] classification.
+
 
+
===Subspecies===
+
[[Image:Osprey photo.jpg|thumb|200px|The Australasian Osprey is the most distinctive subspecies.]]
+
There are four generally recognised  [[subspecies]], although differences are small, and ITIS only lists the first two.
+
* ''P. h. haliaetus'' ([[Carolus Linnaeus|Linnaeus]], 1758) [[Eurasia]]
+
* ''P. h. carolinensis'' ([[Johann Friedrich Gmelin|Gmelin]], 1788), [[North America]]. This form is larger, darker bodied and has a paler breast than nominate ''haliaetus''.
+
* ''P. h. ridgwayi'' [[Charles Johnson Maynard|Maynard]], 1887, [[Caribbean]] islands. This form has a very pale head and breast compared to nominate ''haliaetus'', with only a weak eye mask. It is non-migratory.
+
* ''P. h. cristatus'' ([[Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot|Vieillot]], 1816), found around the coastline of, and along some large rivers within, [[Australia]] and [[Tasmania]]. The smallest subspecies, also non-migratory.
+
 
+
Ospreys are unusual insofar as a single species occurs nearly worldwide. Even the few [[subspecies]] are not unequivocally separable.
+
 
+
===Prehistoric species===
+
There were several prehistoric species of osprey which have been described from [[fossil]]s:
+
 
+
*''Pandion'' sp. (Early Oligocene of Fayyum, Egypt)
+
*''Pandion homalopteron'' (Middle Miocene of California, USA)
+
*''Pandion lovensis'' (Late Miocene of Florida, USA)
+
*''Pandion'' sp. (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene of Lee Creek Mine, USA)
+
 
+
''P. homalopteron'' was very similar to the living species and possibly even its direct ancestor. However, the [[biogeography]] of the fossil ospreys has not been researched well enough to suggest a place where the modern Osprey originated. The genus apparently first appeared in the Mediterranean region, but this is not certain.
+
 
+
==Behaviour==
+
===Di
+
effective tools for grasping fish that, on occasion, an Osprey may be unable to release a fish that is heavier than expected. This can cause the Osprey to be pulled into the water, where i
+
 
+
===Nesting===
+
The Osprey breeds by freshwater lakes, and sometimes on coastal brackish waters. Rocky outcrops just offshore are used in [[Rottnest Island]] off the coast of [[Western Australia]], where there are 14 or so similar nesting sites of which 5-7 are used in any one year. Some have been used for 70 years. The nest is a large heap of sticks built in trees, rocky outcrops, telephone poles or artificial platforms. In some regions with high Osprey densities, such as [[Chesapeake Bay]], [[USA]], most Ospreys do not start breeding until they are five to seven years old, and there may be a shortage of suitable tall structures. If there are no nesting sites available, young Ospreys may be forced to delay breeding. To ease this problem, posts may be erected to provide more sites suitable for nest building.
+
 
+
Ospreys usually mate for life. In spring they begin a five-month period of partnership to raise their young. Females lay 3–4 [[The biology of eggs|egg]]s within a month, and rely on the size of the nest to help conserve heat. The eggs are approximately the size of [[chicken]] eggs, and [[cinnamon]] colored; they are incubated for about 5 weeks to hatching.
+
 
+
The newly-hatched chicks weigh only 50–60 g (2 oz), but fledge within eight weeks. When food is scarce, the first chicks to hatch are most likely to survive. The typical lifespan is 20–25 years.
+
 
+
[[Europe|European]] breeders winter in [[Africa]]. [[United States|American]] and [[Canada|Canadian]] breeders winter in [[South America]], although some stay in the southernmost [[United States|USA]] states such as [[Florida]] and [[California]]. [[Australasian]] Ospreys tend not to [[bird migration|migrate]].
+
 
+
==Conservation==
+
Twenty to thirty years ago, Ospreys in some regions faced possible [[extinction]], because the species could not produce enough young to maintain the population. Possibly because of the banning of [[DDT]] in many countries in the early 1970s, together with reduced persecution, the Ospreys, as well as other affected [[bird of prey]] species have made significant recoveries.
+
 
+
==Popular culture==
+
The Osprey is the [[List of Canadian provincial and territorial symbols|official bird]] of [[Nova Scotia]] in [[Canada]] and [[Sudermannia]] in [[Sweden]]. It is the official mascot and team name for the [[University of North Florida]] and the [[Richard Stockton College of New Jersey]]. The bird was depicted on the 1986 series [[Canadian dollar|Canadian $10 note]].  The Osprey is also the mascot of the [[Christian Falangist Party of America]] and 'Ospreys' is also adopted as the team name for Swansea Rugby Football in the Magners League, Wales, UK
+
 
+
==See also==
+
* [[Ospreys in Britain]]
+
 
+
==References==
+
* {{IUCN2006|assessors=BirdLife International|year=2004|id=49304|title=Pandion haliaetus|downloaded=12 May 2006}} Database entry includes justification for why this species is of least concern
+
* Forsman, ''The Raptors of Europe and the Middle East'',  ISBN 0-85661-098-4
+
* Mullarney, Svensson, Zetterstrom and Grant, ''Collins Bird Guide'' ISBN 0-00-219728-6
+
* Gessner, David, ''Return of the Osprey'', ISBN 1565122542
+
* Gessner, David, ''Soaring with Fidel'', ISBN 0807085782 We're just speaking the truth.
+
 
+
==External links==
+
{{commons|Pandion haliaetus}}
+
{{en:wiktionary|osprey}}
+
* [http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/species/index.html?action=SpcHTMDetails.asp&sid=3324&m=0 BirdLife Species Factsheet]
+
* [http://www.rspb.org/reserves/guide/a/abernethyforest/diary/index.asp RSPB UK Osprey Diary with links to much other bird information]
+
* [http://www.ospreys.org.uk/AWOP/Update.htm For numerous links to information about Ospreys in Britain.]
+
* [http://www.birds.cornell.edu/AllAboutBirds/BirdGuide/Osprey.html Cornell Lab of Ornithology - Osprey]
+
* [http://www.ospreyworld.com/ A meeting place for Osprey lovers with live osprey footage]
+
* [http://www.mbr-pwrc.usgs.gov/id/framlst/i3640id.html USGS - Osprey Information]
+
* [http://sdakotabirds.com/species/osprey_info.htm South Dakota Birds - Osprey Information and Photos]
+
* [http://images.usace.army.mil/scripts/PortWeb.dll?query&field=Image%20name&opt=matches&value=2892-65.Jpg&template=Selected_Info&catalog=photoDVL A little about Ospreys in West Virginia]
+
* [http://ibc.hbw.com/ibc/phtml/especie.phtml?idEspecie=568 Osprey videos] on the Internet Bird Collection
+
* [http://www.ospreynest.org/ Live Web cam on an Osprey nest] (located on [[Lake Washington]] at [[Kennydale, Washington]])
+
 
+
 
+
[[Category:Falconiformes]]
+
[[Category:Genera of birds]]
+
[[Category:Bird families]]
+
[[Category:Birds of Australia]]
+
[[Category:Birds of prey]]
+
[[Category:Birds of Puerto Rico]]
+
[[Category:Birds of Western Australia]]
+
[[Category:Fauna of Indonesia]]
+
[[Category:Fauna of Italy]]
+
[[Category:Birds of Japan]]
+
[[Category:Fauna of Kazakhstan]]
+
[[Category:Fauna of Norway]]
+
[[Category:Fauna of Scotland]]
+
[[Category:Fauna of Spain]]
+
[[Category:Heraldic birds]]
+
  
 +
The Osprey is particularly well adapted to its fish diet, with reversible outer toes, closable nostrils to keep out water during dives, and backwards facing scales on the talons which act as barbs to help hold its catch. It locates its prey from the air, often hovering prior to plunging feet-first into the water to seize a fish. As it rises back into flight the fish is turned head forward to reduce drag. The 'barbed' talons are such effective tools for grasping fish that, on occasion, an Osprey may be unable to release a fish that is heavier than expected. This can cause the Osprey to be pulled into the water, where it may either swim to safety or succumb to hypothermia and drown.
  
[[bg:Орел рибар]]
+
The osprey breeds by freshwater lakes, and sometimes on coastal brackish waters.  The nest is a large heap of sticks built in trees, rocky outcrops, telephone poles or artificial platforms. In some regions with high Osprey densities, such as Chesapeake Bay, USA, most ospreys do not start breeding until they are five to seven years old, and there may be a shortage of suitable tall structures. If there are no nesting sites available, young ospreys may be forced to delay breeding. To ease this problem, posts may be erected to provide more sites suitable for nest building.
[[id:Elang Tiram]]
+
}}<noinclude>[[Category:Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Transcluded Modules|{{FULLCHAPTERNAME}}]]</noinclude>
[[cs:Orlovec říční]]
+
[[cy:Gwalch y Pysgod]]
+
[[da:Fiskeørn]]
+
[[de:Fischadler]]
+
[[eo:Fiŝaglo]]
+
[[es:Pandion haliaetus]]
+
[[fr:Balbuzard pêcheur]]
+
[[fy:Fiskearn]]
+
[[gl:Aguia peixeira]]
+
[[io:Mar-aglo]]
+
[[he:שלך]]
+
[[lt:Erelis žuvininkas]]
+
[[nl:Visarend]]
+
[[ja:ミサゴ]]
+
[[nn:Fiskeørn]]
+
[[pl:Rybołów]]
+
[[pt:Águia-pesqueira]]
+
[[ru:Скопа]]
+
[[sk:Kršiak rybár]]
+
[[sl:Ribji orel]]
+
[[fi:Sääksi]]
+
[[sv:Fiskgjuse]]
+
[[tr:Balık kartalı]]
+
[[zh:]]
+

Latest revision as of 15:14, 5 July 2012

Pandion haliaetus (Osprey)
A North American Osprey preparing to dive.
Description
The Osprey, Pandion haliaetus is a medium-large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution. It occurs in all continents except Antarctica, but in South America only as a non-breeding migrant. It is often known by other colloquial names such as fishhawk, seahawk or Fish Eagle.

The Osprey is 52-60 cm20.5-23.6 inches long with a 152-167 cm5-5.5 ft wingspan. It has mainly white underparts and head, apart from a dark mask through the eye, and fairly uniformly brown upperparts. Its short tail and long, narrow wings with four long "finger" feathers (and a shorter fifth) give it a very distinctive appearance.

Juvenile birds are readily identified by the buff fringes to the upperpart plumage, buff tone to the underparts, and streaked crown. By spring, wear on the upperparts makes barring on the underwings and flight feathers a better indicator of young birds. Adult males can be distinguished from females from their slimmer bodies and narrower wings. They also have a weaker or non-existent breast band than the female, and more uniformly pale underwing coverts. It is straightforward to sex a breeding pair, but harder with individual birds.

In flight, Ospreys have arched wings and drooping "hands", giving them a diagnostic gull-like appearance. The call is a series of sharp whistles, cheep, cheep, or yewk, yewk. Near the nest, a frenzied cheereek!

The Osprey is particularly well adapted to its fish diet, with reversible outer toes, closable nostrils to keep out water during dives, and backwards facing scales on the talons which act as barbs to help hold its catch. It locates its prey from the air, often hovering prior to plunging feet-first into the water to seize a fish. As it rises back into flight the fish is turned head forward to reduce drag. The 'barbed' talons are such effective tools for grasping fish that, on occasion, an Osprey may be unable to release a fish that is heavier than expected. This can cause the Osprey to be pulled into the water, where it may either swim to safety or succumb to hypothermia and drown.

The osprey breeds by freshwater lakes, and sometimes on coastal brackish waters. The nest is a large heap of sticks built in trees, rocky outcrops, telephone poles or artificial platforms. In some regions with high Osprey densities, such as Chesapeake Bay, USA, most ospreys do not start breeding until they are five to seven years old, and there may be a shortage of suitable tall structures. If there are no nesting sites available, young ospreys may be forced to delay breeding. To ease this problem, posts may be erected to provide more sites suitable for nest building.