Libro de respuestas de especialidades JA/Artes y actividades manuales/Trenmodelismo

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This page is a translated version of the page Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Arts and Crafts/Model Railroad and the translation is 94% complete.

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Asociación General

Artes y actividades manuales

Destreza: 2
Año de introducción: 1967



1. Dar la historia y el desarrollo de trenmodelismo.

2. Tell the difference in how the following prototype motive power units operate:

a. Steam

Steam Locomotion

Steam powered locomotives use burning coal or wood to heat water enclosed in a large boiler. The steam released from this boiler acts much like the steam that emanates from a kettle of boiling water on the stove. By channeling the steam’s pressure into an engine cylinder, it pushes a piston that provides mechanical power to the wheels. Steam locomotives dominated rail transport until the mid-1900’s when diesel and electric locomotives took over. Steam locomotives had to stop periodically to receive a new supply of water plus logs or coal.

b. Diesel

c. Eléctrica

3. Conocer el nombre, escala, y el ancho de vía de ferrocarril de 4 modelos de medidores.

4. Conocer las formas y los nombres de al menos 8 formaciones de vías.

5. Conocer al menos 6 puntos para comprobar el mantenimiento de un diseño de ferrocarril modelo.

6. Identificar y explicar el uso de:

a. 5 clases de vagones de cargas

b. 3 clases de vagones de pasajeros

c. 3 clases de locomotoras de vapor en relación a sus ruedas

d. 2 clases de alarma de cruce de tren

e. 2 clases de señales de tráfico de ferrocarril

f. 5 clases de vías férreas relacionadas con los edificios o estructuras

7. Know the meaning of the following model railroad terms:

a. Ballast
Rock or gravel poured between railroad ties to secure them in place and stabilize the track.
b. Blind drivers
Driving wheels on a steam locomotive with a large number of wheel sets. These were driving wheels without the usual flanges, allowing a larger number of wheels to negotiate a turn without binding up against the rails.
c. Block
A section of model track which is electrically insulated from its surrounding sections so that engines on it can be controlled independent of trains on other engines.
d. Bolster
A beam that transfers the weight of a railcar to its truck.
e. Crossing
A place where pedestrian or automobile traffic crosses the railroad.
f. Crossover
A place where two railroad tracks cross each other.
g. Double header
The use of two locomotives to pull an especially long and heavy train.
h. Draft gear
Part of a railcar's coupling system which allows for some flexing in the tension between cars.
i. Flange
The larger, flat part of a trains wheels that descend below the track's top surface on the inside edge, thus holding the car on the track as it moves.
j. Frog
At the center of a turnout, it is the small X-shaped piece of track that enables a train's wheels to cross over the inside rail.
k. Gap
A space between rails so that they are electrically insulated from one another. This is done so that the two rails do not short together, or so they can be on different circuits.
l. Gauge
Sometimes used to describe the size of track and cars used on a certain model railroad, it more accurately measures the space between the rails of that railroad's track.
m. Grade
A measurement of the steepness of the track when it is not flat or level with the ground. It is measured in degrees according to its angle from level ground.
n. Gravity yard
A place for storing, sorting or processing train cars which uses track set at an angle with the ground in order to let gravity move cars when needed.
o. Hot box
A wheel bearing that has become excessively hot because of friction.
p. Insulated rail joiner
A non-conducting clip, usually made of plastic, that allows two pieces of track to be connected physically while remaining independent electronically. Used between distinct blocks of track.
q. Journal
A bearing in which the shaft between two wheels rotates against the car's truck with the help of lubrication supplied within a journal box, often seen on a train car's trucks.
r. Layout
An arrangement of model railroad track, structures and scenery that models real-life railroad operation in a contained area.
s. Mainline
The route a train takes from one destination to another, independent of track used in yards, sidings or spurs.
t. Prototype
The real-life railroad operation and equipment upon which a model railroad is based.
u. Rail joiner
A metallic clip placed on the bottom flange at the end of a section of track allowing it to be connected both physically and electrically to the next piece of track on the line.
v. Reverse loop
A length of track which, by use of one or more turnouts, returns a train to its originating position facing the opposite way from which it left.
w. Siding
A section of track that runs parallel to the mainline and allows a train to stop and be passed by another train occupying the same mainline.
x. Spur
A dead-end piece of track which accepts cars to be delivered from the mainline or prepared for shipment to another destination via the mainline.
y. Switch
Something which routes power or trains between two or more options. When routing trains, it is best to use 'turnout' to distinguish the track mechanism from the electronic toggle switch that activates it from the layout's control panel.
z. Machine
Refers in model railroading to the small mechanism attached to a turnout which allows it to be operated by remote-control from the layout's control panel.
aa. Talgo truck
A model railroad truck with its own attached coupler. Although Talgo trucks permit model trains to operate on smaller radius curves, they can be more likely to derail when trains are pushed, rather than pulled.
bb. Truck
A single, solid piece of hardware mounted to the bottom of a railroad car or locomotive to which is attached on or more sets of wheels. On train cars, trucks usually contain two sets of wheels and can swivel beneath the car when the train is navigating a turn.
cc. Turnout
A mechanism for allowing a train to leave one set of tracks and join another. Sometimes called a 'switch.'
dd. Two-rail
A standard of model railroading which does not employ a separate (third) rail for power. Layouts using two-rail modeling systems must employ special wiring when a wye or reverse loop exists within the layout's design.
ee. Wye
A triangle-shaped junction of two railroad lines in which one line joins another with the option of going either direction on the second line.
ff. Yswitch
A turnout in which both branches leave the turnout at a different angle from the original line. Most turnouts have one straight-through line and a single branch that leaves the line in a different direction.
gg. Yard
A set of tracks which branch off of the mainline and allow train cars to be sorted, reordered or stored while they are en route to their destination.

8. Construir una parte de un modelo de ferrocarril. En la construcción, hacer lo siguiente:

a. Ayudar en el montaje del marco exterior

b. Instalar una sección de basalto

c. Instalar una sección de vías

d. Instalar al menos una vuelta, incluido el cableado

e. Ayudar en la construcción del paisaje como árboles, rocas, montañas o el césped

f. Hacer un modelo de edificio o estructura del tren

g. Asistir en el cableado para el suministro de energía eléctrica a las vías

9. Operar con éxito un modelo de tren de ferrocarril en el paisaje que le han ayudado a realizar.