| General Conference
| Skill Level 1
Year of Introduction: 1945
1. Explain the difference in food value between whole wheat flour and white flour.
Whole wheat retains the bran and germ as well as the endosperm, in contrast to white flour which retains only the endosperm.
Whole wheat foods are nutritionally superior to refined grains, richer in dietary fiber, antioxidants, protein (and in particular the amino acid lysine), dietary minerals (including magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, and selenium), and vitamins (including niacin, vitamin B6, and vitamin E).
The greater amount of dietary fiber, as much as four times than found in refined grains, is likely the most important benefit, as it has been shown to reduce the incidence of some forms of cancer, digestive system diseases, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and obesity. Some of these protective effects occur because carbohydrates from whole grains are digested and enter the bloodstream more slowly, avoiding the "sugar rush."
2. Describe the effects of yeast in bread making.
Yeast interacts chemically with sugar in warm water to provide leavening. This allows the bread to "rise".
In more detail, yeasts make up a group of single-celled fungi, a few species of which are commonly used to leaven bread. In the absence of oxygen, yeasts produce their energy by converting sugars into carbon dioxide and ethanol. In baking, the carbon dioxide raises the bread and the ethanol evaporates.
3. Give one Old Testament and one New Testament incident where leavening is mentioned.
Exodus 12:34 & 39 -- The Israelites prepared unleavened bread for the first Passover
Jesus mentioned leavening several times including: Matthew 13:33;
Luke 13:20, 21
Jesus compares the Pharisees to leaven in Matthew 16:6-12; Mark 8:15; Luke 12:1
4. Prepare whole grain bread (can be wheat, rye, oatmeal, etc.).
| Whole Wheat Bread (Vegan)
- 1 C warm water (105-115 degrees F)
- 2 T (or 2 packages) of active dry yeast
- 1 pinch unrefined sugar
- 1 C soy milk
- 1/3 C (packed) unrefined sugar
- 3 T vegan butter or margarine
- 1 T salt
- 1 1/2 C walnuts (optional)
- 1/4 C soft tofu (mashed), stir until chunks are minimal (egg replacer or 1 T ground flax seed also works)
- 2 1/2 C cups fine-milled or medium-milled whole wheat flour
- 3 7/8 C unbleached all-purpose white flour
- In a small bowl stir up the yeast in 1/2 cup warm water, add a pinch of unrefined sugar. Let the yeast activate for 10 minutes.
- To a large mixing bowl add the other 1/2 cup water, milk, unrefined sugar, melted vegan margarine, salt, tofu, and whole wheat flour. Stir with wooden spoon until creamy.
- Add the yeast mixture which should be foamy by now. Add walnuts. Add in the unbleached wheat flour a little at a time. Stir until the dough is too thick for the spoon then put the dough on a lightly floured cutting board or counter top and mix by hand. When all the flour is added, knead dough for around 5-7 minutes. Cover dough with a towel and let rise for around 1 to 1.5 hours. Dough should double in size.
- Knock the dough down once then place 2 equal portions of the dough into 2 greased pans. If you want the loaves to look fancy do this: roll dough into 4 separate dough "snakes". Twist 2 of these together to make a nice looking intertwined loaf. Let rise about 45 minutes.
- Brush tops of loaves with melted margarine (keeps them from drying out) and dust with cinnamon, uncooked oatmeal or white flour (aesthetics). Bake in oven preheated to 375F for around 35 minutes. When done, loaves will sound hollow when tapped.
5. Prepare two of the following:
a. Yeast biscuits
| Yeast Biscuits
- 1 package dry yeast
- 1/4 cup warm water
- 2.5 cups all-purpose flour
- 2 Tbsp sugar
- 1 tsp salt
- 1/2 tsp baking powder
- 1/2 tsp baking soda
- 1/2 cup margarine
- 1 cup soymilk
- 1 Tbsp vinegar
- Preheat oven to 400°F.
- Open yeast packet and stir into the warm water to dissolve it. Allow it to sit until needed.
- Combine flour, salt, sugar, baking powder, and baking soda into a mixing bowl. Mix well.
- Cut the margarine into the dry mixture until it forms pea-sized clumps
- Add the vinegar to the soymilk and stir well (this is a buttermilk substitute)
- Add the soymilk and yeast mixture to the dough. Combine until it has an even consistency. It will be sticky.
- Roll the dough out onto a well-floured surface. Fold it over and roll it out again. Repeat for one minute.
- Roll the dough out to a thickness of a half inch.
- Using a biscuit cutter (or a juice glass), cut circles out of the dough and place on a shallow, greased pan.
- Bake for 10-12 minutes.
b. Unleavened bread
| Communion Bread
- 6 Tbsp cooking oil
- 3 Tbsp ice water
- ½ tsp salt
- 1 cup unbleached flour
- ½ cup whole wheat flour
- Combine ingredients and mix well.
- Roll the dough out into a thin sheet, about ¼ inch thick.
- Place dough on a cookie sheet
- Bake at 250°F
c. Bread sticks
| Bread Sticks
- 2.5 cups bread flour
- 1/2 tsp salt
- 1 tsp sugar
- 3 Tbsp olive oil
- 1 cup warm water
- 1 packet yeast
- In a large bowl, sprinkle the yeast on the surface of the warm water.
- Add the remaining ingredients and stir.
- Remove the dough from the bowl and knead for one minute on a well-floured surface.
- Let the dough rise for ten minutes
- Preheat oven to 425°F
- Form dough into twelve bread sticks
- Place bread sticks on a cookie sheet
- Bake for 9-10 minutes
Serves 6 (two bread sticks per person)
| Simple Bagels
- 4½ cups of flour
- 2 packets of active dry yeast
- 1½ cups of water, at 110°F
- 3 tablespoons of sugar
- 1 tablespoon of salt
- 1 gallon of water
- 1 tablespoon of sugar
- In a suitably sized bowl combine 1½ cups flour and the two packets of yeast.
- Combine the 1½ cups of warm water, the sugar and the salt; then pour over the flour mixture.
- Beat at low speed for about thirty seconds, scraping sides of bowl constantly.
- Beat for three minutes on high speed.
- Stir in as much of the remaining flour as you can mix in. Turn out onto a lightly floured surface.
- Knead in enough remaining flour to make a moderately stiff dough. Continue kneading until smooth and elastic; then cover and allow to rest for fifteen minutes.
- Cut into twelve portions; then shape into smooth balls. Punch a hole in the middle of each with a floured finger. Pull gently to enlarge hole to about two inches.
- Place on a greased baking sheet; cover; and allow to rise for twenty minutes.
- Broil five inches from heat for about 90 seconds on each side.
- Heat 1 gallon water and 1 tablespoon sugar to boiling; then reduce heat.
- Cook bagels, about five at a time, for 8 minutes, turning once in the middle.
- Drain and place on greased baking sheet.
- Bake at 400°F for 25 minutes.
With thanks to http://www.bagelrecipes.net/simple-bagels.html - a completely free source for recipes for bagels.
e. Vegetable bread
| Vegetable Bread
- 3/4 cup liquid egg substitute
- 1 cup vegetable oil
- 2 cups brown sugar, firmly packed
- 2 cups ground zucchini
- 2 Tbsp vanilla extract
- 3 cups whole wheat flour
- 1 tsp baking soda
- 1 tsp salt
- 1/4 tsp baking powder
- 3 tsp cinnamon
- 1 cup chopped nuts
- In a large bowl, combine zucchini, egg substitute, oil, brown sugar, and vanilla extract. Set aside.
- In a separate bowl, combine flour, baking soda, salt, baking powder, and cinnamon.
- Add the zucchini mixture.
- Stir until smooth.
- Add the nuts and fold them in.
- Pour the mixture into a loaf pan.
- Bake at 325°F for 75 minutes.
6. Explain why the use of baking powder and soda should be avoided and why the mixture of milk, sugar, and eggs is harmful to health.
- Baking soda and baking powder
- In The Ministry of Healing, Ellen White wrote that baking soda and baking powder should not be used for making bread. She wrote, "Soda causes inflammation of the stomach and often poisons the entire system."
- Milk, sugar, and eggs
- When these ingredients are mixed and eaten, they ferment in the abdomen, giving the same effect as alcohol products.
7. How do you test a cake for being done? How do you keep a cake from "falling"?
You can test to see if a cake is done by inserting a toothpick or butter knife carefully into the center of the cake. If it comes out clean without any "cake goo" attached, then the cake is done.
You can keep a cake from falling by not introducing a cake to temperatures drastically different from the oven too quickly and by not slamming the door on the oven before the cake is done.
8. Prepare two of the following:
a. Cake from basic ingredients (any flavor)
See the Wikibook Cookbook recipes for Cakes and Cupcakes. Remember that you can use soy milk instead of cow's milk. In cake recipes calling for eggs, you can substitute a half banana and a quarter cup of apple sauce.
b. Cake from a mix (any flavor)
The best advice we can give here is to buy a mix and follow the directions on the package. Cake mixes were introduced to the market in the 1950's, though they were not initially well-received. At that time, the only thing the homemaker needed to do was add water, blend, pour it in a pan, and bake. Marketeers determined that homemakers did not like this because it did not feel enough like "homemade" so they omitted powdered eggs from the mix and had the homemaker add fresh eggs along with the water. As soon as this change was made to the formulation, sales skyrocketed.
It should be noted however, that it is perhaps impossible to find a cake mix that does not use either baking powder or baking soda, or the combination of eggs, milk, and sugar (see requirement 6). However, 3 tablespoons of water plus 1 tablespoon of either cornstarch or ground flax seed makes a good egg-substitute.
c. Fruit or nut cake or loaf cake
| Fruit Nut Cake
- 4 ounces dark raisins
- 4 ounces mixed dried fruit (dates, cranberries, or raisins)
- 8 ounces lightly toasted and chopped nuts
- 1 cup orange juice
- 1 cup packed brown sugar or maple syrup
- 1⅔ cups water
- 4 tablespoons unsweetened applesauce
- 1/2 teaspoon salt
- 1/4 tsp ground cinnamon
- 1/4 tsp cloves
- 1/4 tsp ginger
- 1/4 tsp nutmeg
- 3 cups unsifted wholewheat pastry flour or all-purpose flour
- 1 teaspoon baking soda
- 2 tsps orange or lemon zest
- 1/2 tsp vanilla extract
- 1 tsp lemon juice
- oil to grease the pan
- Powdered sugar to dust
- Soak the dried fruit in orange juice in the refrigerator overnight.
- Transfer the fruit to a pot containing 1⅔ cups water
- Add sugar, applesauce, orange zest, and spices.
- Bring to a boil, simmer for 5 minutes, and turn off the heat
- Preheat oven to 350°F
- Add lemon juice and vanilla to the fruit mixture and allow it to cool to room temperature
- Grease a bundt pan
- Fold in the flour, baking soda, and nuts
- Spoon the batter into the bundt pan and bake until a toothpick inserted into the center of the cake comes out clean. This can take anywhere from 40 minutes to an hour.
- Cool for a few minutes, and then turn it out onto a cooling rack.
- Dust the cake with powdered sugar.
d. Sponge cake
| Sponge Cake
- 2 cups self-raising flour
- 1 tsp baking soda
- 1 cup sugar
- 1 cup vegetable oil
- 1/2 cup orange juice
- 1/2 cup water
- 1.5 tsp vanilla extract
- 4 Tbsp fruit jam (any flavor)
- 1.25 cups cream
- Preheat oven to 325°F
- Grease two pans and line them with baking parchment
- Sift the flour, baking soda, and sugar into a large bowl
- Using a second bowl, mix the oil, juice, water, and vanilla extract with a whisk
- Pour the liquid ingredients into the dry ingredients and beat until the mixture is smooth.
- Pour the batter into the two pans, and bake for 30 minutes
- Allow the cakes to cool in the pans, then turn out onto a cooling rack.
- Whip the cream
- Sandwich the two layers together using the jam and whipped cream.
9. Make one pie in each of the following categories:
a. Baked, any fruit, including lemon
| Berry Pie
- Double crust
- 2 cups all-purpose flour
- 1/3 cup shortening
- 5-6 Tablespoons water
- Pie filling
- 5 cups blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, or a mix of them (fresh or frozen)
- 3/4 cup sugar
- 1/3 cup flour
- 1.5 Tablespoons lemon juice
- Cut the shortening into the flour until it is reduced to pea-sized chunks
- Add a tablespoon of water to the center, and mix it in with a fork. Move the dampened mix to the side and add another tablespoon of water. Repeat until you have used 5-6 tablespoons of water.
- Divide the dough in half, and form into two equal-size balls.
- Lightly flour your work surface and roll one dough ball out into a 12" circle.
- Pick up the dough by wrapping it around the rolling pin. Transport it to a 9" pie pan and lay it in, being careful to not stretch the dough.
- Mix the sugar, flour, and lemon juice in a large mixing bowl.
- Add the berries, and toss until they are coated.
- If the berries were frozen, allow them to sit for 15-30 minutes (but don't let them completely thaw).
- Pour the filling into the pie pan (previously lined with the bottom crust). The filling will mound to an alarming height, but do not worry - it will compact as it bakes.
- Roll out the top crust until you have another 12" circle.
- Pick up the top crust with the rolling pin and carefully lay it over the berry mound.
- Pinch the edges to seal the top and bottom crusts together.
- Cut off any crust that extends over the edge of the pie pan.
- Make several slits in the top crust to allow steam to escape. Be creative here.
- Cover the pie with a sheet of aluminium foil that has had a 6" circle cut from the center. This will protect the edges of the crust and keep them from becoming overdone.
- Bake at 375°F for 30 minutes (fresh berries) or 50 minutes (frozen berries)
- Remove the aluminium foil and bake an additional 20 minutes.
- Place on a wire rack to cool.
- Serve with a scoop of vanilla ice cream.
See the Pie Section in the Wikibooks Cookbook for more recipes.
b. Unbaked (baked pie shell only), fresh fruit, gelatin, etc.
See the Banana Cream Pie recipe in the Wikibooks Cookbook.
By definition, refrigerator cookies are made from a stiff dough that is refrigerated to become even stiffer. The dough is typically shaped into cylinders which are sliced into round cookies before baking. Refrigerator cookies are any type of cookie where the dough needs to be chilled before baking the cookies.
Examples of refrigerator cookies include:
- Gingerbread cookies
- Most "cookie cutter" cookies
- Some types of chocolate chip cookies.
11. Prepare recipe file for all of the items required above and any others desired. See how many recipes you can find using fruit without large amounts of sugar.
Try one of many recipe sites online such as recipesource.com. Or, even better, use this as an opportunity to learn recipes that your parents and grandparents have made over the years! Be sure that you include your favorite recipes!