Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Recreation/Basketball
| General Conference
|| Skill Level 1
Year of Introduction: 1999
- 1 1. Know the basic rules of basketball.
- 2 2. What is the meaning of “Good Sportsmanship?”
- 3 3. Define the following terms:
- 4 4. Demonstrate an understanding of the different skills required at each position.
- 5 5. Demonstrate reasonable skill in the following areas:
- 6 6. Spend at least 4 hours helping a less skilled or younger player improve their skills.
- 7 7. Play at least 5 games with family or friends. Show good sportsmanship during your practice and games.
- 8 8. Write a one page report on a famous basketball player. Discuss why they are or are not a good Christian role model.
- 9 9. Discuss with your Pathfinder leader, pastor or teacher the problems facing a Seventh-day Adventist youth considering sports in Jr. High, High School and college. What alternatives are there that allow for continued activity in sports.
- 10 10. Make a scale drawing of a basketball court properly laid out.
- 11 References
This Honor is a component of the Sportsman Master Award.
1. Know the basic rules of basketball.
When James Naismith invented basketball, he devised thirteen rules:
The object of the game is to put the ball into your opponent's goal. This may be done by throwing the ball from any part of the grounds, with one or two hands, under the following conditions and rules.
- The ball may be thrown in any direction with one or both hands.
- The ball may be batted in any direction with one or both hands.
- A player cannot run with the ball. The player must throw it from the spot on which he catches it, or dribble the ball with one hand whilst running, allowances to be made for a man who catches the ball when running if he tries to stop.
- The ball must be held by the hands. The arms or body must not be used for holding it.
- No shouldering, holding, pushing, tripping or striking in any way the person of an opponent shall be allowed; the first infringement of this rule by any player shall come as a foul, the second shall disqualify him until the next goal is made, or, if there was evident intent to injure the person, for the whole of the game, no substitute allowed.
- A foul is striking the ball with the fist, violation of Rules 3, 4, and such as described in Rule 5.
- If either side makes three consecutive fouls it shall count as a goal for the opponents (consecutive means without the opponents in the meantime making a foul).
- A goal shall be made when the ball is thrown or batted from the grounds into the basket and stays there, providing those defending the goal do not touch or disturb the goal. If the ball rests on the edges, and the opponent moves the basket, it shall count as a goal. If the ball goes over the backboard, hits the side or the top of the backboard, then the ball is officially out of play.
- When the ball goes out of bounds, it shall be thrown into the field of play by the person touching it. He has a right to hold it unmolested for five seconds. In case of a dispute the umpire shall throw it straight into the field. The thrower-in is allowed five seconds; if he holds it longer it shall go to the opponent. If any side persists in delaying the game the umpire shall call a foul on that side.
- The umpire shall be the judge of the men and shall note the fouls and notify the referee when three consecutive fouls have been made. He shall have power to disqualify men according to Rule 5.
- The referee shall be judge of the ball and shall decide when the ball is in play, in bounds, to which side it belongs, and shall keep the time. He shall decide when a goal has been made and keep account of the goals, with any other duties that are usually performed by a referee.
- The time shall be two, fifteen minute halfs with a five minute break in between.
- The side making the most goals in that time shall be declared the winner. In the case of a draw the game may, by agreement of the captains, be continued for five minutes after another jump ball.
The original game played under these rules was quite different than the one played today as there was no dribbling, dunking, three-pointers, or shot clock, and goal tending was legal.
2. What is the meaning of “Good Sportsmanship?”
Good conduct and attitude by sports participants, especially fair play, courtesy, striving spirit, and grace in losing.
3. Define the following terms:
- a. Air ball
- is any shot that misses the basket completely and does not hit either the net, rim, or backboard.
- b. Backboard
- That's the board behind the hoop/basket.
- c. Back court
- the area from the midcourt line to the end line for the team defending the basket.
- d. Front court
- the area from the midcourt line to the end line for the team that is trying to score the basket.
- e. Baseline
- The end line on a basketball court.
- f. Block
- to hinder (or obstruct) an opponent's action(s).
- g. Bounce pass
- The bounce pass is a fundamental passing technique. The player passes the ball to a teammate by bouncing the ball off the floor. A successful bounce pass can easily result in an assist because a bounce pass is harder for defenders to intercept.
- h. Double dribble
- a double dribble is a violation in which a player dribbles (bounces) the ball, clearly holds it with a combination of either one or two hands (while either moving or stationary), and then proceeds to dribble again without first either attempting a field goal or passing off to a teammate.
- i. Dribbling
- dribbling is the legal method of advancing the ball by oneself, as opposed to passing it to another player or shooting for the basket. It consists of bouncing the ball on the floor continuously while walking or running down the court.
- j. Fake
- to trick or deceive (an opponent).
- k. Fast break
- In a fast break, a team attempts to move the ball up court and into scoring position as quickly as possible, so that the defense is outnumbered and does not have time to set up.
- l. Field Goal
- field goal is the term for any basket not made while attempting free throws
- m. Fouled out
- If a player commits five personal fouls over the course of a game, they foul out and thus disqualified from participation for the remainder of the game. A player within one or two fouls of fouling out is often said to be in "foul trouble." Players who foul out are not ejected and may remain in the bench area for the remainder of the game. Fouling out of a game is not considered to be grounds for further disciplinary action.
- n. Give and go
- a basic play in basketball which comes from the action - one player gives (passes) the ball to a teammate and then goes to the basket and anticipating a return pass for a layup.
- o. Inbound
- the area of the court that is inside the end lines and the sidelines, or, the act of bringing (throwing) the ball into this area.
- p. Intentional Foul
- a personal foul which is judged to be premeditated.
- q. Jump ball
- A jump ball is a method used to begin or resume play in basketball. It is similar to a faceoff in ice hockey. Two opposing players attempt to gain control of the ball after it is tossed up into the air in between them by an official.
- r. The Key
- the free-throw lane, the lane, or, the paint. This is the area that starts at the free throw line and extends to the end line under the backboard/basket.
- s. Loose ball foul
- a foul that takes place when neither team has possession of the basketball.
- t. Man to man
- Man to man defense is a type of defensive tactic in which each player is assigned to defend and follow the movements of a single player on offense. Often, a player guards his counterpart (e.g. center guarding center), but a player may be assigned to guard a different position.
- u. One and one
- A type of free throw. A bonus free-throw situation for non-shooting fouls. The person fouled shoots one free throw, and if successful, takes another free throw.
- v. Perimeter
- the area outside the foul circle around the basket where players make long range shots.
- w. Pick
- A screen is a blocking move by an offensive player, by standing beside or behind a defender, to free a teammate to shoot, receive a pass, or drive in to score. In basketball, it is also known as a pick. Screens can be on-ball (when set for the ball-handler), or off-ball (when set for a teammate moving without the ball to get open for a pass). The two offensive players involved in setting the screen are known as the screener (who blocks the defender) and the cutter (who gets free from the defender).
- x. Press
- a defense that tries to force the opponent to make errors by guarding them closely.
- y. Rebound
- is the act of successfully gaining possession of the basketball after a missed field goal or free throw. Rebounds in basketball are a major part in the game, as most possessions end after a missed shot. Rebounds are divided into two main categories: offensive rebounds, in which the ball is recovered by the offensive side and does not change possession, and defensive rebounds, in which the defending team gains possession of the loose ball.
- z. Shot Clock
- the shot clock is a timer designed to increase the pace (and subsequently, the score) in games. The offensive team must attempt a field goal before the shot clock expires, and the ball must then either touch the rim or enter the basket, or the offensive team will be assessed a violation resulting in loss of possession.
- aa. Steal
- a steal occurs when the defensive player actively takes possession of the ball from the opponent's team
- bb. Team Fouls
- a personal foul (by a player) that is also counted against the team.
- cc. Trap
- a form of defense which attempts to create a turnover.
- dd. Traveling
- traveling is a violation of the rules that occurs when a player holding the ball illegally moves one or both of his feet. Most commonly, a player travels by illegally moving his pivot foot or taking too many steps without dribbling the ball. Traveling is sometimes also called "walking" or "steps."
- ee. Turnover
- a turnover in basketball occurs when a player from one team gives possession to a member of another team by losing the ball without taking a shot
- ff. Zone Defense
- is a type of defense used in sports which is the alternative to man-to-man defense; instead of each player guarding a corresponding player on the other team, each defensive player is given an area, or a "zone", to cover.
- gg. Center
- The center is one of the standard positions in a regulation basketball game. The center is normally the tallest on the team, and often has a great deal of strength and body mass as well
- hh. Forwards
- The Small forward, or, colloquially, the three, is one of the five positions in a regulation basketball game. Small forwards are typically somewhat shorter, quicker, and leaner than power forwards and centers, but on occasion are just as tall. The small forward position is considered to be perhaps the most versatile of the main five basketball positions, due to the nature of its role. The Power forward is a position in the sport of basketball. The position is referred to in playbook terms as the four position. Power forwards play a role similar to that of center in what is called the "post" or "low blocks".
- ii. Guards
- The Shooting guard, also known as the two or off guard, is one of five traditional positions on a basketball team. Players of the position are often shorter, leaner, and quicker than forwards. A shooting guard's main objective is to score points for their team. The Point guard, also known as "the ball-handler," is one of the five traditional positions of a basketball team. Typically, being quicker and shorter than even a shooting guard, the more speed a point guard has, the more likely he/she will be able to create separation and space off the dribble, which allows the guard room to work.
- jj. Jump shot
- a jump shot is an attempt to score a basket by jumping, usually straight up, and, mid-flight, propelling the ball in an arc into the basket. It is done so by the player bringing his or her elbow up until it is aligned with the hoop, then sent towards the hoop in a high arc. It is considered the easiest shot to make from a distance. The purpose of the jump is to make it more difficult for the defender to block.
- kk. Lay up
- A layup is a field goal attempt made by leaping from below, laying the ball up near the basket, and using one hand to tip the ball over the rim and into the basket (layin) or to bank it off the backboard and into the basket (layup). The motion and one-handed reach distinguish it from a jump shot. The layup is considered the most basic shot in basketball.
- ll. Bank shot
- A bank shot is a shot that relies on the ball bouncing off backboard and into the basket. It is mostly used for mid-ranged jump shots from an angle (usually at the elbow) and layups.
- mm. Dunk
- A slam dunk (or simply a dunk) is a type of basketball shot that is performed when a player jumps in the air and manually powers the ball through the basket with one or both of his hands, then often grabs the rim shortly after the ball passes through the hoop (a dunk is still being performed if the rim is not grabbed, as long as the athlete powers the ball through the hoop manually).
- nn. Hook shot
- A hook shot, is a play in which the offensive player, usually turned perpendicular to the basket, gently throws the ball with a sweeping motion of his arm in an upward arc with a follow-through which ends over his head. Unlike the jump shot, it is shot with only one hand; the other arm is often used to create space between the shooter and the defensive player. Once the ball is in shooting position, the hook shot is one of the most difficult shots to effectively defend. However, prior to that point, as the ball is being brought up into position, it is very susceptible to being stolen from behind.
- oo. Free throw
- free throws or foul shots are unopposed attempts to score points from a restricted area on the court (the free throw line; informally known as the "charity stripe" or foul line), and are generally awarded after a foul by the opposing team.
- pp. Personal foul
- a personal foul is a breach of the rules that concerns illegal personal contact with an opponent. It is the most common type of foul in basketball. Due to the nature of the game, personal fouls occur on occasions and are not always regarded as unsportsmanlike. However, a contact foul involving excessive or unjustified contact is classed as an unsportsmanlike foul.
- qq. Charging
- an offensive foul, when the offensive player runs into a defender who has already established a position.
- rr. Blocking
- the use of a defender's body position to illegally prevent an opponent's advance.
- ss. Technical foul
- a technical foul is an infraction of the rules usually concerning unsportsmanlike non-contact behavior, and is generally considered a more serious infraction than a personal foul, but not as serious as a flagrant foul.
- tt. Three second violation
- The three seconds rule requires that a player shall not remain in the opponents' restricted area (that is, within the lane, or area between the goal in the free throw line) for more than three consecutive seconds while his team is in control of a live ball in the frontcourt and the game clock is running.
- uu. Five second rule
- the five-second rule, or five-second violation, is a rule that helps promote continuous play. There are multiple situations where a five-second violation may occur. In NCAA and NFHS rules, there are two situations in which a five-second violation may occur. One occurs when a player, while closely guarded, holds the ball for five seconds. A five-second throw-in violation occurs if, during a throw-in, the thrower does not release the ball before five seconds have elapses.
- vv. Ten second rule
- the offensive team has ten seconds to advance the basketball out of their back court past the mid-court line.
- ww. Back court violation
- when the offensive team allows the basketball to go behind the mid-court line and touches it before an opponent.
- xx. Inbound violation
- players have five seconds to inbound the ball, otherwise, it is an inbound violation.
- yy. League
- a group of athletic teams to compete among themselves.
- zz. Three point shot
- a three-point field goal, three-pointer, three-point shot, or simply three is a field goal made from beyond the three point line, a designated semi-ellipsoid arc radiating from the basket.
4. Demonstrate an understanding of the different skills required at each position.
Although the rules do not specify any positions whatsoever, they have become a part of basketball. During the first five decades of basketball's development, one guard, two forwards, and two centers or two guards, two forwards, and one center were used. Since the 1980s, more specific positions have developed, namely:
- Point guard
- usually the fastest player on the team, organizes the team's offense by controlling the ball and making sure that it gets to the right player at the right time.
- Shooting guard
- creates a high volume of shots on offense; guards the opponent's best perimeter player on defense.
- Small forward
- often primarily responsible for scoring points via cuts to the basket and dribble penetration; on defense seeks rebounds and steals, but sometimes plays more actively.
- Power forward
- plays offensively often with his back to the basket; on defense, plays under the basket (in a zone defense) or against the opposing power forward (in man-to-man defense).
- uses size to score (on offense), to protect the basket closely (on defense), or to rebound.
The above descriptions are flexible. On some occasions, teams will choose to use a three guard offense, replacing one of the forwards or the center with a third guard. The most commonly interchanged positions are point guard and shooting guard, especially if both players have good leadership and ball handling skills.
5. Demonstrate reasonable skill in the following areas:
a. Shooting from the free throw line.
Each free throw is worth one point, and normally more than one is awarded. The importance of free throws is nevertheless sometimes underestimated; games have been known to be decided on them, especially when the score is close. Teams who could have sealed the game on free throws can finish with a narrow win or even a loss because of failure behind the line.
Free throws are organized in procession. The shooter takes his place behind the free throw line (19 feet from the base line, 15 feet from the basket). All other players must stand in their correct places until the ball leaves the shooter's hands:
Three people from the defensive team and two people from the shooting team line up along the sides of the restricted area (keyhole, paint, lane). These players are usually the ones that rebound the ball. Three line up on one side and two on the other. A defensive player always takes the place closest to the basket.
The remaining four players, two from each team, must remain behind the three point line and the free throw line extended (an imaginary line extended from the free throw line in both directions to the sidelines).
Leaving their designated places before the ball leaves the shooter's hands, interfering with the ball, and (for the defensive team only) attempting to put off the shooter, are all violations. In addition, the shooter must release the ball within five seconds (ten in the NBA as well as all other levels of basketball in the United States) and must not step on or over the free throw line until the ball touches the ring. Contrary to popular belief, players are permitted to jump while attempting the free throw, provided they do not leave the designated area at any point. A violation by the shooter cancels the free throw; a violation by the defensive team results in a substitute free throw if the shooter missed; a violation by the offensive team or a shot that completely misses the ring results in the loss of possession to the defensive team (only if it is on the last free throw).
b. Shooting from different positions around the basket
Shooting is the act of attempting to score points by throwing the ball through the basket. While methods can vary with players and situations, the most common technique can be outlined here.
The player should be positioned facing the basket with feet about shoulder-width apart, knees slightly bent, and back straight. The player holds the ball to rest in the dominant hand's fingertips (the shooting arm) slightly above the head, with the other hand on the side of the ball. To aim the ball, the player's elbow should be aligned vertically, with the forearm facing in the direction of the basket. The ball is shot by bending and extending the knees and extending the shooting arm to become straight; the ball rolls off the finger tips while the wrist completes a full downward flex motion. When the shooting arm is stationary for a moment after the ball released, it is known as a follow-through; it is incorporated to maintain accuracy. Generally, the non-shooting arm is used only to guide the shot, not to power it.
Players often try to put a steady backspin on the ball to deaden its impact with the rim. The ideal trajectory of the shot is somewhat arguable, but generally coaches will profess proper arch. Most players shoot directly into the basket, but shooters may use the backboard to redirect the ball into the basket.
The two most common shots that use the above described set up are the set shot and the jump shot. The set shot is taken from a standing position, with neither foot leaving the floor, typically used for free throws. The jump shot is taken while in mid-air, near the top of the jump. This provides much greater power and range, and it also allows the player to elevate over the defender. Failure to release the ball before returning the feet to the ground is a traveling violation.
Another common shot is called the layup. This shot requires the player to be in motion toward the basket, and to "lay" the ball "up" and into the basket, typically off the backboard (the backboard-free, underhand version is called a finger roll). The most crowd-pleasing, and typically highest-percentage accuracy shot is the slam dunk, in which the player jumps very high, and throws the ball downward, straight through the hoop.
Another shot that is becoming common is the "circus shot". The circus shot is a low-percentage shot that is flipped, heaved, scooped, or flung toward the hoop while the shooter is off-balance, airborne, falling down, and/or facing away from the basket.
A shot that misses both the rim and the backboard completely is referred to as an air ball. A particularly bad shot, or one that only hits the backboard, is jocularly called a brick.
Dribbling is the legal method of advancing the ball by oneself, as opposed to passing it to another player or shooting for the basket. It consists of bouncing the ball on the floor continuously while walking or running down the court.
The original Naismith rules said nothing about dribbling, merely stating that passing the ball was the legal way of advancing it. Players soon developed the strategy of "passing to themselves", which James Naismith himself both endorsed and admired for its ingenuity, and which developed into the dribble as it is known today.
The dribble allows for much faster advancement and thus more opportunities for scoring. It also provides an opportunity for a crafty player on the opposing team to "steal" the ball in mid-bounce. Once a player stops dribbling the ball and holds it, the player normally must either pass it to another player or take a shot; if the player dribbles and then holds the ball in any way (either grasping it with his hands or arms, or "palming" it, i.e. holding it too much toward its underside during the act of dribbling), then the referee stops the play, signals either "double dribble" or "carrying", and turns the ball over to the other team.
Skilled ball handlers bounce the ball low to the ground, reducing the risk of a defender reaching in to steal the ball. Adept dribblers can dribble behind their backs, between their legs and change hands without watching the ball, making the player difficult to defend and opening up options to pass, shoot or drive with the ball.
There are several passing techniques in basketball. Three are presented here.
- Bounce Pass
- The bounce pass is a very effective and fundamental type of passing technique. This pass is when the player passes the ball to a teammate by bouncing the ball off the floor with a large amount of energy. A successful bounce pass can easily result in an assist because a bounce pass is harder for defenders to intercept. At the same time, a bounce pass may still be intercepted due to its slower speed. Thus, a player is required to use his or her best judgment when he decides whether or not to throw such a pass. The move has to be executed perfectly because a bounce pass just in front of the defender will result in a turnover or a hard catch for the receiver of the pass.
- Jump pass
- A jump pass is a pass performed while the passing player's feet are off the floor. When done intentionally, it can sometimes confuse the defender, causing him to believe that the passer is shooting instead of passing. However, it at times is done as a result of the player having their shooting lane blocked and often leads to the player turning the ball over to the opposing team. This kind of pass is strongly discouraged in all levels of basketball, as it leaves the offensive player very vulnerable to turnovers.
- Chest pass
- This pass is performed best by stepping towards your target with one foot, then pushing the ball outwards from the chest with two hands while turning the hands over, ending with the thumbs pointing down. It is best used in the open court and on the perimeter.
6. Spend at least 4 hours helping a less skilled or younger player improve their skills.
This can be done by helping a younger sibling learn how to play basketball. If you don't have a younger sibling, help some younger children at school. You may also meet this requirement by teaching this honor.
7. Play at least 5 games with family or friends. Show good sportsmanship during your practice and games.
If you go to elementary school and have taken PE, you have more than likely played at least 5 basketball games. You may also play the 5 games with others that are learning this honor.
8. Write a one page report on a famous basketball player. Discuss why they are or are not a good Christian role model.
Some suggestions. Feel free to choose others:
9. Discuss with your Pathfinder leader, pastor or teacher the problems facing a Seventh-day Adventist youth considering sports in Jr. High, High School and college. What alternatives are there that allow for continued activity in sports.
The most obvious problem faced by a Seventh-day Adventist who wishes to participate in organized sports is the tendency for games to be scheduled during Sabbath hours. Competitive sports and Sabbath observance are often not compatible with one another. Another challenge at higher levels is pressure to take performance enhancing drugs (doping).
An alternative that avoids Sabbath breaking or drug pressure would be to participate with a group of like-minded individuals. Many towns offer city leagues, and it may be possible to form a team with other members of your church, with the understanding that you will not compete on the Sabbath. The Adventist athlete may also enjoy individual sports instead, or engage in informal pick-up games. A student choosing an Adventist University or College which offers team sports programs is unlikely to experience Sabbath difficulties.
As Christians we need to show Christ-like behavior on the field. Always play fair and be a good sport. Don't trash talk other teams or players. It is OK to try to win, but not in any way that degrades or sets a bad example.