Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Recreation/Lashing
| North American Division
|| Skill Level 1
Year of Introduction: 2018
- 1 1. Define lashing and explain its purposes.
- 2 2. How can lashing be used in a camping or outdoors setting? Give three examples.
- 3 3. What materials are used in lashing?
- 4 4. Demonstrate the following beginning and ending knots:
- 5 5. What beginning and ending knots are used in the following five types of lashing:
- 6 6. Explain how to calculate the length and thickness of ropes needed for a project. Demonstrate how to preserve the ends of a cut rope.
- 7 7. Explain the differences between a frap and a wrap.
- 8 8. Demonstrate how to tie the following five lashings:
- 9 9. Discuss what types of weight loading each diameter of rope can handle depending on the nature of the material.
- 10 10. Demonstrate ways to store ropes and wood for later use.
- 11 11. Create at least three of the following items:
- 12 References
1. Define lashing and explain its purposes.
A lashing is an arrangement of rope wire or webbing with linking device used to secure and fasten two or more items together in a somewhat rigid manner. Lashings are most commonly applied to timber poles, and are commonly associated with cargo, containerisation, the Scouting movement, and sailing.
2. How can lashing be used in a camping or outdoors setting? Give three examples.
Lashing can be used to build useful items in a camp setting. If in an area where gathering timber is allowed, the camper with proper skills can build the needed items rather than pack them in.
Three categories of items that lend themselves to lash construction include:
- Table, chair, and even beds.
- Lean-to, super shelter, tree cot, baker's tent (frame), etc.
- Tools & Utensils
- ladder, tripod for cooking, coat hangers, etc.
3. What materials are used in lashing?
a. List types of ropes that are preferred for lashing.
b. Give the advantages of natural materials over dimensional lumber.
4. Demonstrate the following beginning and ending knots:
a. Timber hitch
Use: The timber hitch is a knot used to attach a single length of rope to a piece of wood. This knot is easily undone after use.
How to tie:
b. Clove hitch
Use: This knot is the "general utility" hitch for when you need a quick, simple method of fastening a rope around a post, spar or stake (like tying wicks to sticks in Candlemaking) or another rope (as in Macrame)
How to tie:
c. Square knot
Use: Also known as a Reef knot, the Square Knot is easily learned and useful for many situations. It is most commonly used to tie two lines together at the ends. This knot is used at sea in reefing and furling sails. It is used in first aid to tie off a bandage or a sling because the knot lies flat.
How to tie:
WARNING: Do not rely on this knot to hold weight in a life or death situation. It has been known to fail.
5. What beginning and ending knots are used in the following five types of lashing:
6. Explain how to calculate the length and thickness of ropes needed for a project. Demonstrate how to preserve the ends of a cut rope.
7. Explain the differences between a frap and a wrap.
- A wrap is a turn made around the two spars to hold the spars tightly together. Usually, three wraps are made to form a Square Lashing. Some other lashings require more wraps.
- A frap is a turn made between the spars. It goes around the wraps to pull the wraps tighter. Usually two frapping turns are made on a lashing.
8. Demonstrate how to tie the following five lashings:
9. Discuss what types of weight loading each diameter of rope can handle depending on the nature of the material.
- Made from the leaves of the Musa textillis tree in the Philippine Islands.
- Made from the leaves of the Agave sisalaua plant that is native to central America. Sisal and Manila are the strongest natural material ropes with a 10% stretch factor.
- Made from an annual herbaceous plant native to west and central Asia. Hemp is 2/3 as strong as Manila and Sisal rope.
- Made from the white, downy, fibrous substance that covers the seeds of the cotton plant.
- Made from coconut husks.
Synthetic ropes are all man-made from different types of plastics. They have unique names that reflect their different properties. The strength of the synthetic rope is at least twice that of Manila or Sisal rope. The main types of synthetic ropes are:
- Polypropylene and polyethylene
- These are plastic ropes which stay afloat and are not affected by water. They are designed for marine purposes; they are tough and have good abrasion resistance. However, they have low stretch and heat resistance.
- Terylene or polyester
- These ropes stay afloat and are not affected by water. They have high heat resistance, but have low stretch.
- These have a high level of strength, do not float and are affected by wet conditions.
They have good stretch and moderate heat resistance. Nylon 6 is used in rock climbing and nylon 66 is used in abseiling. Nylon is resistant to abrasions, bacteria and most organic solvents. It is sensitive to strong acids, alkalinity and long exposure to sunlight.
10. Demonstrate ways to store ropes and wood for later use.
Rope should be Coiled up and hung up in a dry place, or put in a box or bucket. The box or bucket should have holes to let the rope breathe. This will help against rot and odors.
The wood should be bundled up and racked off the ground in a dry place, like on a wall or hung from the ceiling. If outside, the wood should be wrapped in a tarp or oiled canvas to keep out water.