Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Recreation/Lashing

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Lashing
North American Division

Recreation
See also Lashing - Advanced

Skill Level 1
Year of Introduction: 2018



1. Define lashing and explain its purposes.

A lashing is an arrangement of rope wire or webbing with linking device used to secure and fasten two or more items together in a somewhat rigid manner. Lashings are most commonly applied to timber poles, and are commonly associated with cargo, containerisation, the Scouting movement, and sailing.

2. How can lashing be used in a camping or outdoors setting? Give three examples.

Lashing can be used to build useful items in a camp setting. If in an area where gathering timber is allowed, the camper with proper skills can build the needed items rather than pack them in.

Three categories of items that lend themselves to lash construction include:

Furniture
Table, chair, and even beds.
Shelter
Lean-to, super shelter, tree cot, baker's tent (frame), etc.
Tools & Utensils
ladder, tripod for cooking, coat hangers, etc.

3. What materials are used in lashing?

a. List types of ropes that are preferred for lashing.

b. Give the advantages of natural materials over dimensional lumber.

4. Demonstrate the following beginning and ending knots:

a. Timber hitch

Timber hitch
Timber Hitch Final.jpg
Timber Hitch HowTo.jpg

Use: The timber hitch is a knot used to attach a single length of rope to a piece of wood. This knot is easily undone after use.

How to tie:

  1. To make the knot, pass the rope completely around the wood.
  2. Pass the running end around the standing part, then through the loop that you have just formed.
  3. Make three turns around the loop then pull on the standing part to tighten.
  4. Take care that you double the rope back on itself before making the three turns, or it won't hold.
  5. Three are recommended for natural rope such as jute, whereas five turns are needed on synthetic rope like nylon.
This knot is also known as the Bowyer's Knot as it is used to attach the lower end of the bowstring to the bottom limb on an English Longbow.

b. Clove hitch

Clove hitch
Knot clove.jpg

Use: This knot is the "general utility" hitch for when you need a quick, simple method of fastening a rope around a post, spar or stake (like tying wicks to sticks in Candlemaking) or another rope (as in Macrame)

How to tie:

  1. Make a turn with the rope around the object and over itself.
  2. Take a second turn with the rope around the object.
  3. Pull the end up under the second turn so it is between the rope and the object. Tighten by pulling on both ends.

c. Square knot

Square Knot
Knot square.jpg

Use: Also known as a Reef knot, the Square Knot is easily learned and useful for many situations. It is most commonly used to tie two lines together at the ends. This knot is used at sea in reefing and furling sails. It is used in first aid to tie off a bandage or a sling because the knot lies flat.

How to tie:

  1. Pass left end over and under right end.
  2. Curve what is now the left end toward the right and cross what is now the right end over and under the left.
  3. Draw up tight by pulling one end and line away from the other end and line.

WARNING: Do not rely on this knot to hold weight in a life or death situation. It has been known to fail.


5. What beginning and ending knots are used in the following five types of lashing:

a. Square

b. Shear

c. Tripod

d. Diagonal

e. Continuous

6. Explain how to calculate the length and thickness of ropes needed for a project. Demonstrate how to preserve the ends of a cut rope.

7. Explain the differences between a frap and a wrap.

Wrap
A wrap is a turn made around the two spars to hold the spars tightly together. Usually, three wraps are made to form a Square Lashing. Some other lashings require more wraps.
Frap
A frap is a turn made between the spars. It goes around the wraps to pull the wraps tighter. Usually two frapping turns are made on a lashing.

8. Demonstrate how to tie the following five lashings:

a. Square

b. Shear

c. Tripod

d. Diagonal

e. Continuous

9. Discuss what types of weight loading each diameter of rope can handle depending on the nature of the material.

Natural Ropes

Manila
Made from the leaves of the Musa textillis tree in the Philippine Islands.
Sisal
Made from the leaves of the Agave sisalaua plant that is native to central America. Sisal and Manila are the strongest natural material ropes with a 10% stretch factor.
Hemp
Made from an annual herbaceous plant native to west and central Asia. Hemp is 2/3 as strong as Manila and Sisal rope.
Cotton
Made from the white, downy, fibrous substance that covers the seeds of the cotton plant.
Coir
Made from coconut husks.

Synthetic Ropes

Synthetic ropes are all man-made from different types of plastics. They have unique names that reflect their different properties. The strength of the synthetic rope is at least twice that of Manila or Sisal rope. The main types of synthetic ropes are:

Polypropylene and polyethylene
These are plastic ropes which stay afloat and are not affected by water. They are designed for marine purposes; they are tough and have good abrasion resistance. However, they have low stretch and heat resistance.
Terylene or polyester
These ropes stay afloat and are not affected by water. They have high heat resistance, but have low stretch.
Nylon
These have a high level of strength, do not float and are affected by wet conditions.

They have good stretch and moderate heat resistance. Nylon 6 is used in rock climbing and nylon 66 is used in abseiling. Nylon is resistant to abrasions, bacteria and most organic solvents. It is sensitive to strong acids, alkalinity and long exposure to sunlight.

10. Demonstrate ways to store ropes and wood for later use.

Rope should be Coiled up and hung up in a dry place, or put in a box or bucket. The box or bucket should have holes to let the rope breathe. This will help against rot and odors.

The wood should be bundled up and racked off the ground in a dry place, like on a wall or hung from the ceiling. If outside, the wood should be wrapped in a tarp or oiled canvas to keep out water.

11. Create at least three of the following items:

a. Chair (must include seat and back)

b. Table (must be able to support 16 lbs. or 2 gallons of water)

c. Tripod for cooking fire

d. Flag pole (must have at least four spars)

e. Ladder (must include six rungs)

References