Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Vocational/Administration

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Administration
South American Division

Vocational

Skill Level 2
Year of Introduction: 2012


Limited Availability



1. Define administration and what is its importance in the different aspects of daily life.

This is a good question for discussion.

Administration refers to the various activities related to managing and running an organization. Administration is an act of leadership, an act of guidance, of authority, of communication, of decision-making, and an act of responsibility. Administration, performed effectively, efficiently, and morally, provides the basic framework for society, from the way a household is run to the various levels of communities, businesses, schools and organizations, to higher levels of organization.

In thinking about the impact of administration on daily life, consider all of the organized activities and entities one encounters, or that indirectly influence life. How are roads maintained? How is electricity delivered to a home? Are basic laws understood and maintained? Without administration, a highway department may simply cease to function, leaving some roads to degrade, others to be improved, roads built to nowhere, roads not matching traffic needs. Without administration, power plants fail to function, coal or fuel may never be mined or delivered to power plants, employees may not have the training and direction necessary to act in a coordinated way. Without administration, there are no clear laws and regulations, no common understanding of what behavior is appropriate, safe and acceptable, and what behavior is not.

in short, without administration, society breaks down. Even in a home, there is a certain requirement of administration to keep the family unit functioning. Administration plays a role in planning, in delegating different responsibilities, in ensuring necessary tasks are accomplished.

Look around and see if you can list all of the roles administration plays in the functioning of your church, of your school, your home, and your Pathfinder club. Who are the people responsible for administration? What actions do they engage in? Do you understand the various components of administration they carry out, such as planning, delegating, communicating, budgeting, organizing, assessing and influencing? How would a breakdown in one of these roles affect the overall operation of the church, school, home and Pathfinder club? How can you act in relation to administration to help ensure things run well?

2. Define the following terms of administration:

a. Plan

Planning: The most important and most difficult step, but if done right it makes the other steps much easier. Planning includes understanding all aspects of an organization, all of its parts, resources, time availability, skill sets, inputs and outputs, as well as external factors that may affect the organization and its operations. Planning is forward looking, so it also must take into consideration changes over time. Planning must ultimately be clear, concise, communicated, but also flexible.

b. Organize

Organizing: Organization is a key part of management. Organization includes having the right people in the right positions, based on skills, temperaments, and other factors. It also means proper delegation of responsibilities (and authority), and ensuring there are sufficient and proper resources available. Frequently, to build the right organization, there will be a need for additional training of staff, as well as consideration of mentoring and succession plans to ensure continuity.

c. Command

Commanding: Although we sometimes don’t like to think of managers and leaders as needing to command, the reality is that one of the main responsibilities of leaders is to lead, and that requires commanding. Commanding is not authoritarian (though in certain emergency situations that may be necessary). Rather, it is about giving clear, understandable commands so that each individual in the organization knows what their responsibility is, so the organization works efficiently and effectively. Proper command encourages fulfillment of responsibilities and a desire to live up to expectations; it does not bully or discourage.

d. Coordinate

Coordinating: While commanding is a relationship between the manager and the subordinate, coordinating is the manager’s ability to ensure all of the components of the organization are working smoothly together, that each piece is fulfilling its responsibility and thus the whole works together relatively seamlessly. Coordinating will also require being attuned to friction within an organization, and adjusting assignments or individuals to reduce the friction.

e. Control

Controlling: Managers must ensure that all of the work of the organization moves toward the overall fulfillment of the mission of the organization. This requires assessment of the various activities within the organization to determine whether they are remaining on mission, and where there needs to be some positive motivation to redirect energies and activities to continue to keep the entire organization working together toward its common goal. A clear understanding of this goal must be shared within and by the entire organization.

3. Tell the difference between efficient and effective.

Effective means accomplishing the desired task, efficient means doing a task in a timely and resource-conscious manner.

The first time a Pathfinder Unit sets up their tent, it may take them quite a while, they may make mistakes and have to re-do some steps, but they will eventually set up their tent properly. In the end, they were effective at their task - setting up the tent. But we can clearly see that they were not necessarily efficient. Had they understood the steps, had all the components (tent, ground cloth, poles, stakes, mallet, rain-fly, etc) laid out and ready to go, and each person knew what part they were supposed to accomplish and in what order, they would be much more efficient at accomplishing their task effectively.

While we all want to be effective, it is important to also consider efficiency in operations, and efficiency is usually the result of good training, good preparation, and good communication.

It is also possible to be efficient, but not complete the task required, and thus not be effective. This, too, is something to avoid.

4. According to Maslow's theory of motivation, human needs as are organized and arranged in a hierarchy of levels of importance and influence. Explain these needs, also known as Maslow's pyramid.

MaslowPyramid8.jpg

Abraham Maslow, a psychologist, first published his Theory of human Motivation in 1943. Over the years, it has been modified and adapted, with the current version comprising eight “layers” to the pyramid, the most basic needs at the base (bottom), moving upwards beyond needs to self-actualization and ultimately self-transcendence (caring for others above oneself). Maslow proposed that the first four levels, the so-called deficiency needs, were requirements that humans strove for in order from the most basic (Physiological needs including food, water, sleep and physical comfort), and that each step could only be a motivator for behavior if the needs of the prior step were achieved.

In order from the Base to the tip of the Pyramid (so opposite of how it would appear in the accompanying picture), the eight levels are:

(Basic Needs)

1. Physiological Needs (Hunger, Thirst, Physical comfort)

2. Safety/Security Needs (Staying out of danger)

(Basic Psychological Needs)

3. Belongingness/Love (Being accepted by another individual and/or a group)

4. Esteem (A sense of approval for behavior, recognition for achievement)

(Growth)

5. Cognitive (The desire to know, learn, understand and explore)

6. Aesthetic (An appreciation for symmetry, order, beauty)

(Self Fulfillment)

7. Self Actualization (Realizing ones own potential, living up to ones capabilities)

8. Self Transcendence (Placing others first, desiring to help others fulfill their potential)

5. Leadership is present in many moments of life. Write an essay (of 20 to 40 lines) describing the importance of leadership in administration.

The instructor should not only acknowledge the completion of this requirement, but also use the essay as a place to expand the conversation of leadership, administration, management, order and responsibility. This essay can serve as both a review and starting point for several other requirements in this honor.

6. Make a flow chart of the organization of the Pathfinder club, in all its levels (worldly and nationally), highlighting the club you belong to.

As Pathfinders is a Ministry of the Adventist Church, the organizational structure generally parallels the Church structure.

The world church is administered by the General Conference, which comprises 15 Divisions and Fields. Most of these are divided further by Union Conferences, which are generally divided into Conferences, and finally, some conferences are divided further into Areas, where the local Pathfinder Club will reside.

The general organizational chart, from member up to the General Conference, as per the General Conference Pathfinder website, follows:

Pathfinder Club Members Counselors & Instructors Deputy Directors & other support staff Club Director Local Church Board Area Coordinators Local Conference Pathfinder Director Union Pathfinder Director Division Pathfinder Director General Conference Pathfinder Director

The Divisions and Fields can be found at [1]

The 10 Union Conferences and Missions of the North American Division can be found at [2]

The current World Pathfinder Director is Jonatan Tejel. The current North American Division Pathfinder Director is James Black. (see [3])

You will need to research within your own Division, Union, Conference and Area to determine the chain of leadership applicable to you.

7. Define planning and its importance in the Pathfinder club.

Planning is the process of systematically preparing for the future. In a Pathfinder club, there are several components of planning. Below is one way to consider a planning process, but it is certainly not the only way.

The first is to assess and understand the organization, which will allow effective planning for that specific club. Some things to consider may include: What is the mission and purpose of the club, which should shape all of the activities. What are the components of the Pathfinder experience, from the Investiture Achievement to the Honors to various activities. What are the the age level and skills of the members, as well as the staff. Where is the club located (what space can it use, what is the general climate and terrain of the city or state that needs considered for planning activities, etc). Think of some other basic considerations to understand as well.

Once the club is assessed, what are the activities it intends to accomplish, and over what time period? Consider some of the following, but list others that may be relevant: Staff recruitment and training Coordination with the local church for use of space Pathfinder recruitment Induction Club meetings Investiture Achievement classes Honor classes Skill training Field trips Mission and outreach work Community service projects Pathfinder Bible Experience Camping Hiking Camporees Pathfinder fairs Pinewood derby Pathfinder Sabbath Drilling and marching Fundraising Investiture

Once the basic ideas of what to do are decided, lay that against the calendar. What are the area, conference, union or division events that have set dates? What are the events the local church already has scheduled? What are the dates of operation and vacation of the public or church schools that the Pathfinders are likely to come from? What are the days available for use of the Pathfinder meeting room at the local church or elsewhere? Are there some things that must be done sequentially (it is better to teach basic camping skills before camping, one needs to learn drill before competing in a drill competition) Are there certain times activities are best done (depending upon where you live and what skills are known, january may be a great time or a lousy time to camp. If you have a special Thanksgiving program planned, is is usually better in November than March) Are there some things that take several weeks or months to learn or accomplish?

If you know what you want to do, you also have to consider equipment. Effective planning will need to take into consideration supplies, tents, food, chairs, art supplies, transportation - all of the things you use as part of Pathfinders. What equipment do you have, and what condition is it in? Do you need to consider either new equipment, or time for maintenance? Where is equipment stored, and how much time do you need to get it before using it? Is there some equipment or supplies that are perishable? If so, when will you acquire and/or use them.

As you start to fit all of the pieces together (and it is not easy), you also have to consider one of the more challenging aspects - budgeting. How much does each component cost? Don’t forget things like transportation, food, fuel, uniforms, patches... How much money does your club have in reserve? How much does your church contribute? How much does each Pathfinder contribute (Dues, membership registration, etc) What do club registration fees amount to for the conference and/or area? What are other ways the club may consider raising money? Have these been fit into the calendar? 
 Once a master plan for the year has been made (and approved by the local Church board), it is important then to remember that planning isn't done. The main plan is just the overall guideline. Each activity, each event, will need a more focused plan, and plans will always need to be flexible as circumstances change.

it may sound complex (it is), but with proper planning and preparation, Clubs are better prepared, leaders are better prepared, and the overall program runs more smoothly, providing a positive environment for spiritual, mental, physical and social growth for the pathfinders, and for their staff. Poor planning, however, leads not only to disorganization and higher stress, it may also quickly lead to an unwelcoming or even unsafe environment.

8. Develop a year plan of Pathfinder activities, including plans for the regular and advanced classes, containing goals, strategies, action plans and ways to control each stage. Execute this plan for at least 6 months.

This is clearly something to be done in association with the Pathfinder staff. This fits well within the TLT program and responsibilities, but that doesn't exclude younger Pathfinders. A Pathfinder is never too young to be exposed to the planning process, and the early format of the Pathfinder Club devolved quite a bit of responsibility for planning down to the Unit level - to the youth themselves. But it must be remembered that the club leadership has a responsibility to provide guidance, oversight and ensure the decisions made are safe and more importantly fit within the purpose and mission of the Pathfinder program.

9. Define the MASP (Method of Analysis and Solutions to Problems) method and discuss the importance of analyzing problems a club faces and finding solutions.

MASP (Método de Análise e Solução de Problemas), often translated as either Method for Analysis and Solutions to Problems, or Method of Analysis and Troubleshooting (MAT), is a method of assessing and resolving problems in organizations popularized primarily in Brazil. MASP is a variant of the PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act) or PDSA (Plan, Do, Study, Act) method of problem solving, often comprising an eight step process that begins with looking at behavior, actions or outcomes that need adjusted, and then proceeds to find and implement solutions, while also monitoring the overall effectiveness.

A general MASP process comprises eight steps.

1. Identify the Problem: What specifically is the behavior, attitude, or outcome that needs changed. Be clear, concise, and focused at this step. You cannot change everything at once, so start with the most significant or most troubling.

2. Observe/Study the Problem: What are the main characteristics of the problem? How is it manifest? What are the component parts?

3. Analyze the Problem: What is the root cause of the problem? Again, it is important here to be very specific. List several assumed causes of the problem, then work through each one analytically to try and identify the center of gravity, the core issue that, if adjusted, could lead to a more positive outcome.

4. Build a Plan of Action: What are you going to do to address the root cause of the problem? Be clear about the strategies to employ to accomplish change, don’t just say the plan is to change. How can you change certain behavior, actions, underlying causes?

5. Take Action: Communicate the plan. Communication is key to effective action. Execute the action. Don’t just say change is needed, act on it, and ensure others are acting as well. It is very easy to slip back into old patterns, or to too quickly assume changes will not be effective.

6. Verify the Impact: Keep track of what is changing, both in regards to the root cause, and to the outcome. Are the expectations of change being met? In what ways? How are they not being met? Identify and remove blocks to change, revise the action plan as needed.

7. Standardization: Once you have found the new set of actions and methods that lead to the desired changed outcome, standardize these actions. Clearly identify the new pattern of behavior, process or actions, and communicate these throughout the organization. Be sure they are understood and applied.

8. Conclusion: Review the steps of the process, review the application and changes, and assess where the process could have been better, more effective, or less disruptive (though at times being disruptive is necessary to effect change). Look for lessons to apply moving forward.


MASP is useful for mid- to long-term adjustments in structure to achieve a desired outcome. The shorter-term PDSA method may also be useful, particularly to keep in mind when rapid mid-course corrections are needed.

PDSA begins first with a basic set of questions. What am I trying to change, how can I change it, how will I know when the desired effect has taken place. Think of PDSA as a loop, rather than a linear process.

1. PLAN: What will you do differently in your process to achieve the desired outcome. Be sure to communicate clearly the plan and the desired outcome.

2. DO: Carry out a small-scale test of the plan. See how it works. Is it beginning to bring about the changes desired?

3. STUDY: What are the effects of the changes? Are they meeting expectations? Where can they be adjusted to be more effective? Are these the right changes to be made to achieve the desired outcome?

4. ACT: Implement the adjusted changes on a larger scale. At this point, you can return to Step 1, and continue through the cycle. As noted above, PDSA serves asa rapid cycle process, so it may be run numerous times to be most effective, or can be used in rapidly changing situations.

10. Find a Bible study that shows the importance of administration.

Exodus Chapter 18 provides a good lesson in administration, problem solving, and effective delegation, and serves as a good guide for leaders.

References