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General Conference
Skill Level 2
Year of Introduction: 1986

The Advanced Computer Honor, like all things more than five years old and related to computing, is showing its age. This book provides answers to all the requirements - even those that have been archaic for some time. It is recognized that this work will itself be quickly outdated, but an attempt to update the answers has been made in this work.

One of the goals in writing this answer book is to provide low-cost or free solutions to the problems presented. All of the requirements requiring computer software can be met using high quality software that can be downloaded for free from the Internet. Procedures for common commercially available software are also provided if that is available to you. If you are going to teach this honor, you are urged to try the free packages - some of your students may not have another option. You might be surprised at what can be done with these packages - free does not always mean cheap, and the free packages listed here have been carefully selected with quality in mind.

## Have the Computer Honor

This Wiki has a page with instructions and tips for earning the Computer honor.

## 1. Give examples of each of the following computer software / media computer components. Explain the role that each plays in an individuals’ computer experience.

### a. Word Processing software

A word processing program assists the user in creating letter, reports, papers, and other documents. Word processor software has filled the role that used to be assigned to a typewriter. However, a word processor can do a variety of additional tasks, including bold, italics, and underline; spell & grammar check; templates for a variety of advanced documents such as FAX, resume, and tables/forms; formatted tables, image import, Wordart, columns, and more.

Many word processing programs come with preloaded images, templates, and other assistant software. Most word processors come bundled with graphics manipulation software, presentation software, spreadsheet software, and sometimes even website creation software. Often these programs work seamlessly together, allowing spreadsheets to be presented within a word processing document or documents to be presented in public presentations.

Commercial word processing programs include: Microsoft Word, Apple Pages, Corel Wordperfect

Free programs include: Openoffice.org (an excellent choice) and Abiword, though there are quite a range of free office suite programs available for download

### b. Presentation software

A presentation program is a computer software package used to display information, normally in the form of a slide show. It typically includes three major functions: an editor that allows text to be inserted and formatted, a method for inserting and manipulating graphic images and a slide-show system to display the content.

There are many different types of presentations including professional (work-related), education, worship and for general communication. Presentation programs can either supplement or replace the use of older visual aid technology, such as Pamphlets, handouts, chalk boards, flip charts, posters, slides and overhead transparencies. Text, graphics, movies, and other objects are positioned on individual pages or "slides" or "foils". The "slide" analogy is a reference to the slide projector, a device which has become somewhat obsolete due to the use of presentation software. Slides can be printed, or (more usually) displayed on-screen and navigated through at the command of the presenter. Transitions between slides can be animated in a variety of ways, as can the emergence of elements on a slide itself.

Many presentation programs come with pre-designed images (clip art) and/or have the ability to import graphic images. Custom graphics can also be created in other programs such as Adobe Photoshop or Adobe Illustrator and then imported.

With the growth of digital photography and video, many programs that handle these types of media also include presentation functions for displaying them in a similar "slide show" format. For example, Apple's iPhoto allows groups of digital photos to be displayed in a slide show with options such as selecting transitions, choosing whether or not the show stops at the end or continues to loop, and including music to accompany the photos.

The most commonly known presentation program is Microsoft PowerPoint, although there are alternatives such as Corel Presentations, OpenOffice.org Impress and Apple's Keynote.

### c. Graphic creation software

Graphic creation software is a subclass of application software used for graphic design, multimedia development, specialized image development, general image editing or simply to access graphic files. Art software uses either raster or vector graphic reading and editing methods to create, edit, or view art.

Many artists (creative professionals) today use computers rather than traditional forms of art. Using graphic art software may be more efficient than rendering using traditional media by requiring less hand-eye coordination, requiring less visualization skills, and utilizing the computer's quicker (sometimes more accurate) automated rendering functions to create images.

Images created or enhanced in graphic creation software can be imported into word processing, presentation, publication, spreadsheet to enhance the overall final product.

Most graphic art software includes common functions, creation tools, editing tools, filters, and automated rendering modes.

Common general grapics editing software includes Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Photo Elements, Macromedia Fireworks, Paintshop Pro (JASC), Ulead PhotoImpact.

Several quality free programs available for download include IrfanView, Picasa (by Google), and OpenCanvas. The Openoffice.org Suite includes an excellent program for creating vector-based graphics.

### d. Media burning software

Media burning software allows the user to copy data (music, video, data) from another disk or drive onto blank disk-media, such as CD-R (CD with record-once capability), CD-RW (CD with write/rewrite capability), DVD-R (DVD with record-once capability), and DVD-RW (DVD with one of several recording/re-recording capabilities). DVD writable disks even come in a two-sided burnable technology that allows the DVD-burner to copy information onto both sides of the disk. This doubles the available recording space. Most CD-R/RW disks have 700-800 MB of data space, while DVD R/RW's have 4.0-8.0 GB of data space.

This media burning software communicates with a CD-RW or DVD-RW drive to perform these burning tasks. Popular retail programs include Nero (PC), EasyMedia Creator (PC), and Burn (Mac).

Other programs (many free) include - RealPlayer, UltraISO, RecordNow, Acoustica, Burn4Free, PowerISO, and BurnQuick.

Most computer systems come with one or more retail software programs, though sometimes it is a lite version of the program. Both Windows and Mac OS X also have built-in programs built into their operating system to provide basic burning services. Mac OS X even has a program to create interactive and beautiful DVD shows.

Burning software comes in a variety of recording technologies that facilitate burning DVD movies; documents and images; ISO images; CD audio files; and MP3/music files.

There are also different Freeware (free) software packages available. The latest listing of popular burning software can be found at: Download.com

### e. Publication software

Publication software, also known as desktop publishing software (DTP) allows the personal computer user to inexpensively produce documents for either large scale publishing or smaller personal jobs. The user is able to create complex page layouts that combine text, photos, clipart, and shapes, as well as other visual elements and textual layout patterns (such as columns, inlaid text, subscript text, articles, etc.)

Because of the ease of use of this software, individuals can print only a few copies to a personal printer or send the digital layout pages (often outputted to PDFs) to a commercial printing company.

Some may wonder, what can DTP software do that word processing software cannot? In the early days (Pagemaker, the first DTP software was produced in 1985, whereas Wordstar and Wordperfect were already being used by thousands of users), there was a massive difference. Word processing software could do basic typewriting, text and margins, whereas any other layout elements were largely unknown to word processors. DTP software used a graphical user interface, where you could "see what it would look like" when it was published, a term now known as WYSIWYG (What-you-see-is-what-you-get).

In recent years, the strong suite for DTP software is in the templates, easily layouts that have been predefined, as well as output files & scalable font handling that far exceed the word processor. However, some of the layout options original designated to DTP software are now available in word processors (images, columns, spell check, etc.).

Publication software includes: Adobe InDesign, Corel Ventura, Microsoft Publisher, Quark XPress, and Apple Pages (Mac).

Freeware DTP software includes Scribus and Passepartout.

### f. Database creation software

Database creation software provides the interface to create and manage database records. Databases are a collection of interrelated records that are arranged by a software program, called a Database Management System(DBMS), to create meaningful output, such as task lists, Pathfinder birthdays, or campout KP assignments. Most common software programs create and manage relational databases, meaning that information in a variety of locations can be pulled together and presented in one form or output. For example, you may have a list of Pathfinder birthdays, and you wish to assign KP list by birthday. You could call up the meals needing cleanup from one database, and have it assign Pathfinders to a KP duty based on their birthday. The final output would be one form, with three columns, but the information would be pulled from two databases.

Database Software programs include Microsoft Access and Corel Paradox.

Openoffice.org Suite contains a robust database similar to MS Access titled Base.

Spreadsheet software creates spreadsheets. Spreadsheets are grids of information, usually spread across several pages or books that are used widely in the financial field to calculate and display financial data.

Spreadsheet software performs a lot of the functions formerly assigned to bookkeeping ledgers, and the program offers countless self-calculating tools that can provides thousands of bits of information rapidly, allowing a bookkeeper to keep up with a variety of financial data very quickly and efficiently.

In recent years, the increased abilities of spreadsheet software to manage text fields has led some users to blend their usage of word processing with spreadsheet management, creating organized (but usually small) lists. Some online database programs even output their information to tabular forms that can be edited in spreadsheet forms.

In some ways, a spreadsheet program is a database program, in that it can sort and manage linear databases, that is, databases that only have one "layer" of information.

Pathfinder clubs might find a spreadsheet program useful to keep track of dues, campout fees, or even to keep meeting attendance. Some counselors have even created Class level (Friend, Companion, Explorer, Ranger, Voyager, Guide) spreadsheets that allow the counselor to quickly "check off" who has completed the requirements towards their class level insignia.

Spreadsheet programs include: Microsoft Excel, Apple Numbers, and Corel Quattro Pro.

The free Openoffice.org Suite contains a program called Spreadsheet that performs the majority of tasks needed in a spreadsheet software program.

### h. Flash media

Flash memory is a form of computer memory that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed. It is a technology that is primarily used in memory cards. This type of memory is erased and programmed in blocks consisting of multiple locations. This means that it can be saved and re-saved to, and files stored on it can be edited at any time. Flash memory is very inexpensive, and provides a cost-effective way to save large amounts of data (such as documents, pictures, and music) in one place. Examples of applications include digital audio players, digital cameras and mobile phones. Flash memory is also used in USB flash drives (thumb drives, handy drive), which are used for general storage and transfer of data between computers. It has also gained some popularity in the game console market, where it is often used for game save data.

### i. Disk media

Disk media, more commonly referred to as removable media, is any media device that acts as an input or output device where data is displayed. Removable media eliminates such permanent media options as the internal hard drive.

In the 21st century, removable media provide specific niche devices and services, such as internet, GPS directions, music, and video, that all relate together through the common device, the computer. removable media provides users with the opportunity to store information for processing at a later time or date.

Examples of removable media include DVDs, CDs, removable hard drives, floppy disks (in some older computers), media players, and digital cameras

## 2. Successfully install and use a software program.

Software comes in a variety of ways, most commonly on a CD or as a file downloaded from the internet. If the file is downloaded from the internet, please verify that you trust the source you downloaded the file from. Generally, opening executible files attached to email is unwise and may infest your computer with trojan or virus software.

### Installation

Each installer program works slightly differently, but we'll attempt to explain the basics.

### Windows:

#### CD:

In most cases you would simply insert the program CD into your CD-ROM drive. In most cases, the CD will be automatically recognized as needing to be installed and the install program will automatically begin. If it does not, you can start the install program by choosing Start from your menu, then choosing Run... Browse to the location of the CD (usually D:), then choose the program listed there called setup.exe (or something similar). The CD should start installing the desired program. At times, you may have to input a serial number or other code to verify that you are indeed the owner of a legitimate copy of the software you are attempting to install. If you have pirated (illegally borrowed) the software, please choose to not install the program. There are so many legitimately free software offering available over the Internet, that it really isn't necessary to use pirated copies.

You will likely download a file named something.zip. This is a compressed file that needs "unzipped" by your windows program before it can be installed. Once you have uncompressed the file, you should double-click the file and it should start installing.

Some software programs may take awhile to install, especially if they come on more than one CD/DVD (such as mapping programs, office/graphics suites, and games).

Once a software program is installed, a shortcut is installed under the Programs folder (Start | Programs) and also possibley on your desktop. Click on this shortcut and the program will launch (begin).

### MAC

Mac OS X has an application called Installer bundled with it that is used to "install" many MAC programs. However, this is not technically an installer, but a Package Manager.

Some commercial applications for Mac OS X use a custom installer, often Installer VISE or Stuffit InstallerMaker. Applications that do not need to install additional system components can be installed by moving the application files to a desired location on a hard drive; this is known as "drag-and-drop installation" and no installer software is needed. MANY Mac programs use this type of installation.

Mac OS X also includes a separate software updating application, Software Update that keeps installed programs updated via the internet.

#### CD

In a way similar to Windows, programs on CD are inserted in the MAC CD-ROM drive, and an installer begins and automated setup begins.

Mac OS X downloaded files are usually archived in a StuffIt archive. The installer or drop-and-drag installation program can be unarchived and installed, following directions included with the archived program.

### Linux

Most software for Linux systems is available over the Internet, though some commercial packages do occasionally come on media (such as a CD-Rom or DVD). Various distributions of Linux have different strategies for installing software packages, so there is no "one way" to do this.

Most software on a Linux system cannot be installed except by the System Administrator, so you will need to log in as root (or use the "su -" command to become root). Some Linux systems will have an "Install Software" item on the menu, and clicking this will lead you through the steps necessary to install a new program. Other systems require the use of a command line utility which must be executed from the system console.

RedHat developed the "rpm" file, which when downloaded can be installed either from a graphical user interface (follow the on-screen prompts) or from the command line, using the rpm utility:

rpm -U packagename


The -U option means "upgrade," and this will either replace an older version of the software that has already been installed, or install it if no version is present. Unfortunately, rpm packages have dependencies - you cannot install package X unless package Y is there (and is sufficiently up-to-date). You cannot install package Y until package Z is installed. Package Z may have its own dependency problems as well. This can go on seemingly forever. To address this problem, another utility was developed called "yum" (which stands for the Yellowdog Update Manager, "Yellowdog" being the name of another Linux distribution). Yum looks at all the dependencies and updates everything that is needed for package X, including packages Y, Z, and any other packages that are needed:

yum install packagename


Yum will then go out on the Internet, find the latest version of the package on an approved repository, download it, download its dependencies (and the dependencies' dependencies), install them, and perform some basic configuration. Yum can be configured to run on a regular basis to keep all the software installed on a Linux PC up-to-date automatically. Other Linux distributions have equivalent package management utilities.

## 3. Discuss with your unit, group, and/or family the moral issues surrounding software piracy and file sharing. Using biblical support, be able to describe what a Christian’s stance and practice should be in this arena and explain the reasons for your answer.

PLEASE do not begin this discussion without first prayerfully considering the potential direction of this HOT TOPIC conversation, as well as your practice in this arena.

Each year, billions of dollars of software is illegally pirated by consumers. When most leaders were young, they were instructed not to steal the candy bar from the 7/11 or the CD from Wal-mart. In the twenty-first century, theft now encompasses what is often termed "intellectual property." That is, the items stolen are intangible in a physical sense, such as music, data, or software programs.

Many Christians have not however mentally adjusted their application of the "Thou shalt not steal" commandment to intellectual property. George Barna states that only 8% of American teenagers feel that piracy of music is morally wrong. In fact, only 48% of the youth surveyed said that someone in their lives had mentioned the moral issues surrounding this common practice.

For the complete article: Barna Update Online

In my teaching experience (I teach computers and bible for a Northern California Adventist Academy), I have found the approach of "I choose not to do this because...." and the "here's what this researcher discovered" approach as valid for most students. Each student has their opinion and is at their own place in their spiritual journey. Providing a discussion point is NOT likely to change their mind overnight (nor should it). However, it does provide them with the information as well as the strong backing to take a stand that is different from the status quo among their peers. I would strongly discourage an attitude of "this is the right answer and this is how you should do it" approach to this discussion! Allowing them to read the Bible texts and to discuss the implications without prematurely moralizing what you understand the passages to say is invaluable to THEIR learning and application process. Allow the Holy Spirit to do HIS work in HIS time.

## 4. Complete four of the following activities, providing print or digital evidence of completion to your instructor.

Most high schools and Adventist Academies have classes in Keyboarding and Computer Literacy. Evidence of completion of these two courses would be adequate evidence for this requirement.

This requirement should show evidence of individual creativity and involvement. See Requirement #1 for suggested programs.

### a. Create a letter using a word processing program. Use a merge file to allow the same letter to be sent to five different people, with personalization in each letter (such as name field & address field). Use the letter for a project such as:i. Requesting finances for a mission trip or service activity.ii. Communicating a non-perishable holiday food drive to your community.iii. Describing activities in your Pathfinder club that would be of interest to your local newspaper.iv. Inviting friends and family to a Pathfinder Sabbath or other youth ministry event.

In Microsoft Word, this requires two separate documents, a data document for the addresses and the letter document for the standard part of the letter. The merge wizard (see windows help file) will assist you in stepping through the process.

In creating the letter document, merge fields could be placed in the address and salutation lines, though you can also use them in the body of the letter, such as using the person's first name later in the letter.

### b. Create a database that includes at least 15 records of people that includes at least three other fields (such as addresses, honors earned, phone numbers). Use the database to provide forms that extract their information from the database. Use this information for providing a report such as:i. Tracking which honors have been earned by your club during the current year.ii. Determining the attendance and/or points structure of each pathfinder in your club.iii. Tracking which class level requirements have been completed by each individual in your club or group.iv. Tracking the contacts involved in a year-long service initiative.

This should be done using a database, even though most of this could be done as a spreadsheet. Remember that databases are a combination of form and database files. The output form should display the necessary information.

### c. Create a spreadsheet. Use this spreadsheet to do something such as:i. Tracking dues and/or donations to your Pathfinder clubii. Tracking income and expenses for a campout, mission trip, or other group eventiii. Tracking unit completion of class level requirements

This spreadsheet should not only display the data, but should also make use of formulas to automatically generate the data. Spreadsheets have the advantage over other recording methods that formulas can make repetitive tasks much easier by filling in cells with accurate data without manual entry.

### d. Create a two-page newsletter using a publications program. Use multiple columns, in-line graphics, two fonts, appropriate font sizes, and appropriate title and footer information. Use this newsletter for publishing one newsletter such as:i. Pathfinder newsletterii. Church newsletter.iii. Report from a recent mission trip or service activity.iv. School publication

Templates are graphically rich files created by most office programs, such as Publisher, that allow you to easily create newsletter, newspaper, or other graphically rich publications. Combine images from the event with news information to create a FUN publication. A publication program, unlike a word processing program, includes layout fields that closely integrate themed colors, pictures, clip art, and text.

### e. Use a presentation program to create a presentation file containing at least six slides (with text and photos), and demonstrate its function in a full screen presentation. Use templates, design elements, colors, and transitions as appropriate in your presentation. Use the presentation in presenting a subject as:i. AY Honorii. Class level conceptiii. Sermoniv. Fundraising

Presentations can be used to effectively communicate your message to a large audience through the use of media rich content with projected images and text. For best effect, the presentation should use font sizes large enough to be read from a distance (typically size 24 or greater), and pictures of high-enough quality to not be pixelated. The same template or background should be used throughout the presentation. Slide transitions should be logical, and should not distract from the overall presentation. One of the most common mistakes of beginning presenters is to have the transitions be so fancy that the text and images zoom and whiz all over the screen, but are unreadable or distracting to the audience. KISS (Keep It Surprisingly Simple) is a great principle.