The NAD Team has come up with a list of honors that can possibly be earned at home during the COVID-19 shut-down.
Check it out!
El liderazgo de la División Norteamericana he creado una lista de especialidades que posiblemente se pueden desarrollar en casa durante la cuarentena del COVID-19.
¡Búsquelo aquí!

Libro de respuestas de especialidades JA/Actividades agropecuarias/Cría de caballos

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Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book | Outdoor Industries
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Horse Husbandry
General Conference

Outdoor Industries

Skill Level 1
Year of Introduction: 1944

1. What line of profit is derived by the use of specially-selected mares?

The primary line of profit derived from a specially-selected mare is breeding her and selling the offspring.

2. Why is it preferable to raise purebred colts rather than common grades?

If the breeding endeavor is intended to make a profit, there are market factors to consider which may vary considerably from year to year, from breed to breed, and by region of the world. In many cases, the low end of the market is saturated with horses, and the law of supply and demand thus allows little or no profit to be made from breeding unregistered animals or animals of poor quality, even if registered.

3. Name at least five points that are desirable in selecting a horse.

  1. Conformation - how well does the horse meet the standards specified for its breed?
  2. Temperament - this describes how gentle or spirited a horse is.
  3. Sport - does it fit with what you want to do?
  4. Training - unless you intend to train the horse yourself, you should get one that has already been trained.
  5. Health History - has the horse been plagued with health problems? Were its parents and siblings healthy?

4. What type of training will help colts to grow into gentle, dependable horses?

Most young domesticated horses are handled at birth or within the first few days of life, though some are only handled for the first time when they are weaned from their mothers, or dams. Advocates of handling foals from birth sometimes use the concept of imprinting to introduce a foal within its first few days and weeks of life to many of the activities they will see throughout their lives. Within a few hours of birth, a foal being imprinted will have a human touch it all over, pick up its feet, and introduce it to human touch and voice.

5. Describe the proper care and feeding of horses and give three different types of food for horses.

Living environment

Worldwide, horses and other equids usually live outside with access to shelter from the elements. In some cases, animals are kept in a barn or stable, or may have access to a shed or shelter. Horses require both shelter from wind and precipitation, as well as room to exercise and run. They must have access to clean fresh water at all times, and access to adequate forage such as grass or hay. In the winter, horses grow a heavy hair coat to keep warm and usually stay warm if well-fed and allowed access to shelter.


Horses require room to exercise. If a horse is kept in a pasture, the amount of land needed for basic maintenance varies with climate, an animal needs more land for grazing in a dry climate than in a moist one. However, an average of between one and three acres of land per horse will provide adequate forage in much of the world, though feed may have to be supplemented in winter or during periods of drought. To lower the risk of laminitis, horses also may need to be removed from lush, rapidly changing grass for short periods in the spring and fall (autumn), when the grass is particularly high in non-structural carbohydrates.

6. Know the following:

a. Halter

Horse wearing a halter.
Parts of a halter

Horse halters are sometimes confused with a bridle. The primary difference between a halter and a bridle is that a halter is used by a handler on the ground to lead or tie up an animal, but a bridle is generally used by a person who is riding or driving an animal that has been trained in this use. A halter is safer than a bridle for tying, and in fact, a horse should never be tied with a bridle. On the other hand, a bridle offers more control when riding.

b. Bridle

A bridle is a piece of equipment used to control a horse. The bridle fits over a horse's head, and has the purpose of controlling the horse. It holds a bit in the horse's mouth. Headgear without a bit that uses a noseband to control a horse is called a hackamore, or, in some areas, a bitless bridle. There are many different designs with many different name variations, but all use a noseband that is designed to exert pressure on sensitive areas of the animal's face in order to provide direction and control.

Parts of the Bridle

The crownpiece runs over the horse's poll, and the browband across the forehead. The cheekpieces run down the sides of the horse's face.

c. Saddle

A Western saddle

Parts of an equestrian saddle:

the base on which the rest of the saddle is built. Usually based on wood or a similar synthetic material, it is eventually covered in leather or a leatherlike synthetic. The tree size determines its fit on the horse's back as well as the size of the seat for the rider.
the part of the saddle where the rider sits, it is usually lower than the pommel and cantle to provide security
Pommel or Pomnel (English)/ Swells (Western)
the front, slightly raised area of the saddle.
the back of the saddle
part of the saddle in which the rider's feet go, provides support and leverage to the rider.
Leathers and Flaps (English) or Fenders (Western)
The leather straps connecting the stirrups to the saddle tree and protecting the rider's legs from sweat.
a "D"-shaped ring on the front of a saddle, to which certain pieces of equipment (such as breastplates) can be attached.
Girth or Cinch
A strap that goes around the horse's barrel that holds the saddle in place.

7. Know how to properly put a halter, bridle, and saddle on a horse.

It might be easier to watch these videos than to follow written directions.

8. Know how to properly care for the hoofs of a horse. Know the parts of the hoof.

Hoof care

The hardest part is getting the horse to lift its leg.

Barefoot hoof, from below. Details:1. heel perioplium ; 2. bulb; 3. frog; 4. central groove; 5. collateral groove; 6. heel; 7. bar; 8. seat of corn; 9. pigmented walls (external layer); 10. water line (inner layer); 11. white line; 12. apex of frog; 13. sole; 14 toe; 15. how to measure width; 16. quarter; 17 how to measure length

The hooves of a horse or pony are cleaned by being picked out with a hoof pick to remove any stones, mud and dirt and to check that the shoes (if worn) are in good condition. Keeping feet clean and dry wherever possible helps prevent both lameness as well as hoof diseases such as thrush (a hoof fungus). The feet should be cleaned every time the horse is ridden, and if the horse is not ridden, it is still best practice to check and clean feet frequently. Daily cleaning is recommended in many management books, but in practical terms, a weekly hoof check of healthy horses at rest is often sufficient during good weather.

Use of hoof oils, dressings, or other topical treatments varies by region, climate, and the needs of the individual horse. Many horses have healthy feet their entire lives without need for any type of hoof dressing. While some horses may have circumstances where a topical hoof treatment is of benefit, improper use of dressings can also create hoof problems, or make a situation worse instead of better. Thus, there is no universal set of guidelines suitable for all horses in all parts of the world. Farriers and veterinarians in a horse owner's local area can provide advice on the use and misuse of topical hoof dressings, offering suggestions tailored for the needs of the individual horse.

Horses and ponies require routine hoof care by a professional farrier every 6 to 8 weeks, depending on the animal, the work it performs and, in some areas, weather conditions. Hooves usually grow faster in the spring and fall than in summer or winter. They also appear to grow faster in warm, moist weather than in cold or dry weather. In damp climates, the hooves tend to spread out more and wear down less than in dry climates, though more lush, growing forage may also be a factor. Thus, a horse kept in a climate such as that of Ireland may need to have its feet trimmed more frequently than a horse kept in a drier climate such as Arizona, in the southwestern United States.

All domesticated horses need regular hoof trims, regardless of use. Horses in the wild do not need hoof trims because they travel as much as 50 miles a day in dry or semi-arid grassland in search of forage, a process that wears their feet naturally. Domestic horses in light use are not subjected to such severe living conditions and hence their feet grow faster than they can be worn down. Without regular trimming, their feet can get too long, eventually splitting, chipping and cracking, which can lead to lameness.

On the other hand, horses subjected to hard work may need horseshoes for additional protection. Some advocates of the barefoot horse movement maintain that proper management may reduce or eliminate the need for shoes, but certain activities, such as horse racing and police horse work, create unnatural levels of stress and will wear down hooves faster than they would in nature. Thus, some types of working horses almost always require some form of hoof protection.

The cost of farrier work varies widely, depending on the part of the world, the type of horse to be trimmed or shod, and any special issues with the horse's foot that may require more complex care. The cost of a trim is roughly half to one-third that of the cost of a set of shoes, and professional farriers are typically paid at a level commensurate with other skilled laborers in an area, such as plumbers or electricians, though farriers charge by the horse rather than by the hour.

In the United Kingdom, it is illegal for anyone else other than a registered farrier to shoe a horse or prepare a foot for the immediate reception of a shoe. The farrier should have any one of the following qualifications, the FWCF being the most highly skilled:

  • DipWCF (Diploma of the Worshipful Company of Farriers)
  • AWCF (Associateship of the Worshipful Company of Farriers)
  • FWCF (Fellowship of the Worshipful Company of Farriers)

In the USA, there are no legal restrictions on who may do farrier work. However, trained and qualified farriers usually belong to professional organizations such as: the AFA (American Farrier's Association), which certifies farriers as Intern, Journeyman, and Certified Farrier.

Parts of the hoof

1. Coronal band; 2. Walls; 3. Toe; 4. Quarter; 5. Heel; 6. Bulb; 7. P2 (small pastern)

9. Care for a colt or horse for at least one week.

There are many ways to meet this requirement. If you own a horse, you will obviously have ample opportunity to care for it for a week (just make sure you really do, and don't just rely on mom, dad, or another relative to do it for you).

But it is far more common to not own your own horse. In that case, you will need to explore other options. If you have friends or relatives with a horse, they may welcome you to stay with them for a week during the summer in exchange for your caring for their horse. Unless they live very close to you, it is probably not realistic to commute to their stable and properly care for the animal. You really need to live on the farm to fully experience this aspect of the honor.

Another option is to attend one of many available "horse camps" - summer camp programs dedicated to the equestrian arts. Many of these are set up specifically for girls only, or for children over the age of 13, etc., so you will want to check that they will accept you before applying. However, they may be able to recommend another horse camp. Unfortunately, these programs are usually not cheap, so you may need to raise a substantial sum of money before you can attend. It might help to let your relatives know that you would like any birthday or Christmas gifts to be in the form of money set aside for this purpose, or you may be able to take on several odd jobs (shoveling horse stalls or putting up hay are ideas that come to mind). But don't limit your potential to equestrian-related jobs only.

If you really love horses and know a lot about them, you may be able to get a job at a horse camp. It doesn't hurt to ask!


Much of the material for this chapter was taken verbatim from the following Wikipedia articles: