|The NAD Team has come up with a list of honors that can possibly be earned at home during the COVID-19 shut-down.|
Check it out!
El liderazgo de la División Norteamericana he creado una lista de especialidades que posiblemente se pueden desarrollar en casa durante la cuarentena del COVID-19.
Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Recreation/Camp Craft
| General Conference
|| Skill Level 1
Year of Introduction: 1929
- 1 1. Explain how and why weather, season, and water supply are considered when choosing a campsite. Explain what care to take with regard to safe water, sanitary facilities, and emergencies.
- 2 2. Prepare a list of clothing you would need for an overnight camp in warm and cold weather.
- 3 3. Know and practice the safety rules in camping.
- 4 4. Show your ability to use a camp knife by demonstrating or explaining safety rules for its use and making shavings for tinder.
- 5 5. Prepare for an overnight camp with a group by making a list of personal items and group items that will be needed.
- 6 6. Prepare balanced menus for one cooked breakfast, lunch, and supper.
- 7 7. Complete the following while on an overnight camping trip:
- 7.1 a. Prepare ground properly for comfortable sleeping.
- 7.2 b. Correctly pitch and strike a tent.
- 7.3 c. Prepare a proper safe area for a campfire. Show proper use of wood tools in getting and preparing fuel for a fire.
- 7.4 d. Show how to protect your camp against animals, insects, and wet or bad weather.
- 7.5 e. Show how to take proper care of the environment as you camp and leave the area with no trace of having been there.
- 8 8. Know eight things to do when lost.
- 9 9. Camp for a continuous three days and two nights, sleeping each night under the stars or in a tent. Be actively involved in cooking at least two of the meals.
- 10 10. Considering the things learned in this honor and the camping done, what is the meaning and the reason of the Pathfinder Camping Code?
- 11 References
Earning this honor meets a requirement for:
This Honor is a component of the Wilderness Master Award.
|Investiture Achievement requirements for FRONTIER VOYAGER Outdoor Living which require completion of this Honor or one of 4 other Honors, not previously earned.|
1. Explain how and why weather, season, and water supply are considered when choosing a campsite. Explain what care to take with regard to safe water, sanitary facilities, and emergencies.
To help remember the things that are important to camp site selection, remember the six W’s:
- Wind- Find areas that are protected from the wind. This requires knowing or guessing at the normal wind direction (hint look at the direction trees are leaning and the current wind direction)
- Water- Fresh water should be available for drinking, beware of drainage areas, flooding and other water related hazards. Marshy areas can have a high mosquito population that can make camping miserable.
- Weather- Knowledge of the weather patterns of an area can help you decide the best location for the camp site.
- Wild things- Beware of signs of large mammals such as bear, wolves, and mountain lions. Also watch out for the small wild things such as snakes, spiders, ticks, biting flies and mosquitoes.
- Wood- Adequate wood should be available for a campfire, and no dead wood above sleeping area. Survey the trees to make sure that they will not fall on you in strong winds.
- Willingness- Make sure the owner of the property is willing for you to camp on it. Make sure you have the proper permits for camping areas.
When camping in an area that does not have running water and toilets, you must either bring water with you, or bring along the means for purifying water you collect when you arrive. Do not assume that because a stream or lake looks clean that it is OK to drink. In general, it is not, and drinking it without treating it carries a high risk of causing diarrhea or vomiting.
When camping in an area that does have running water, make sure that it is OK for drinking. If you see a sign that says "Non-potable Water," that means that it is NOT OK to drink. Rather, non-potable water is only suitable for flushing toilets and washing hands.
Do not brush your teeth, cook with, or drink non-potable water without purifying it first.
If camping at a facility that has toilets, use them. If camping in the wilderness, you will have to either build a latrine or use cat holes. Do "your business" at least 60 meters away from any source of water (such as a spring, river, or lake), and at least 30 meters away from your camp. Dig a shallow hole 7-10cm deep and go there. Then bury it (and any toilet paper). At this depth, there is a lot of bacteria in the soil to quickly compost your waste. Digging deeper will make it take longer.
Just because you are camping does not mean you are at liberty to skip personal hygiene. Wash your hands before you eat and after you answer "nature's call." Brush your teeth before you go to bed and after breakfast. Wash your face and clean your fingernails.
Keep your kitchen clean too, and wash your dishes as soon as you finish eating. Dishes should be washed with hot, soapy, potable water. A few drops of bleach should be added to your rinse water. It's a good idea to heat dish washing water while preparing meals so that it is ready to use as soon as there are dirty dishes to wash. Be sure the water is not hot enough to scald anyone's hands. Cold water and boiling water can be mixed half-and-half for a comfortable washing temperature.
Be sure to always add hot water to cold water. If you add dangerously hot water to an empty camp sink and then turn your back to get the cold water (to cool it to a safe temperature), someone could easily slip in behind you to wash up and scald themselves. Therefore, always add the hot water to the cold water. That way if someone slips in behind you, they are merely disappointed with cold water rather than suffering a potentially serious injury requiring immediate medical attention.
You should never go camping without a first aid kit. Be prepared for any emergencies that may arise. Know where you can find help from the police and where the nearest hospital is before you need to use their services. Many remote areas and camp grounds do not have good cell phone service, so do not rely on your cell phone to get you out of trouble.
Every Pathfinder and staff member should carry a medical release form with them at all times during a campout, so that if an emergency arises, medical personnel will have proper authorization to begin treatment. These forms should be signed and dated in the recent past - no more than a few months ago. Additionally, all staff should carry medical release forms for all the Pathfinders under their charge at all times during a campout.
2. Prepare a list of clothing you would need for an overnight camp in warm and cold weather.
Warm Weather Clothing
Keep in mind that the weather can change suddenly. Just because it is warm when you begin your outing does not mean it will be warm the whole time. If there is a chance that the weather will turn cold, take along some cold weather gear as well. Check an almanac to see how cold it can get during the time you are planning to be out.
Here is a list of clothing appropriate for a warm-weather outing.
- Thick socks
- Light Shirt (short sleeve)
- Light Shirt (long sleeve)
- Hat with a wide brim
Cold Weather Clothing Remember to dress in layers. This will allow you to control your temperature better. In cold weather, you do not want to sweat, because that will soak your clothing and chill you. If you find yourself working up a sweat, remove a layer of clothing, or open a zipper. Rely on wool rather than on cotton, because wool stays warm even when wet. There is a popular saying among experienced outdoorsmen that "Cotton kills." This is because when cotton gets wet, it steals the body's heat which can lead to hypothermia and death. Your outer layer should be wind-proof, as this greatly increases the warmth of your clothing. Here is a list:
- Thermal Underwear
- Light shirts (polyester or some other synthetic)
- Heavy Shirts
- Wool Sweater
- Wind Breaker
- Fleece Pants (synthetic)
- Nylon Pants (as the outside layer) or snow pants
- Wool Socks
- Warm Hat
Sleepwear For comfortable sleeping and for modesty on overnight trips, bring pajamas or a sweat suit. In many places where it is warm during the day it gets cold at night, so be prepared.
3. Know and practice the safety rules in camping.
- Locate the fire in a safe place. It should be clear for 10 feet (3 meters) all around.
- Do not light a fire beneath overhanging branches or tents, shelters etc.
- Do not use accelerants, such as lighter fluid, gasoline, kerosene, etc. Learn to light a fire without these.
- Put the fire out completely before leaving it. If it's too hot to put your hands in the ashes, it's not sufficiently out. Douse it down with water, turn the coals with a shovel, and be sure to extinguish every coal and ember.
- Do not build a fire on top of flammable material such as grass or leaves.
- Cut away the sod (keep it moist so it stays alive, and replace it before your leave), and clear away the duff and litter.
- Keep fire extinguishing supplies handy and near the fire. A bucket of water or sand, or a fire extinguisher are recommended.
- Do not remove burning sticks from a fire.
- Watch for embers that escape the fire pit and extinguish them immediately.
- Wear proper footwear around a fire.
- Be aware that paper, cardboard, and leaves create floating embers that rise out of the fire pit and may land dozens of yards away.
- Do not light a fire when conditions are adverse (high winds, or drought conditions) or when fires are prohibited by law.
- Before chopping any wood, take a gentle practice swing to check that the axe will not catch on anything (such as an overhead branch).
- Consider what will happen if you miss whatever you are chopping at - will you accidentally hit a finger? A foot? A bystander? Leave plenty of margin for error.
- Make sure the axe head is firmly attached to the axe handle. If it is loose, you may tighten it by wetting the handle, by driving a hardwood wedge into the handle through the eye of the blade, or by rapping the axe handle vertically on a hard surface.
- Keep bystanders away by one arms length plus two axe-lengths.
- When handing someone an axe, present the handle to them rather than the blade.
- Walk with the blade facing away from you.
- Sheathe the axe when it is not in use.
- Always maintain firm footing when using or carrying an axe.
- Stop when you are tired and rest. Tired people are more prone to accidents and mistakes.
Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac all cause a rash when oils from the plant come into contact with the skin. The contact does not have to be direct - it can be transferred from the plant to another item, and then to the skin. Tools, pets, and clothing can all transfer the oil from the plant to the skin. The best defense against this rash is to be able to recognize these plants, stay alert, and avoid contact. If you do come into contact with any of them, the first thing you should do is immediately wash the affected area with soap and water. This will, in many cases, prevent the rash from developing. If contact went undetected and a rash does develop, apply Calamine lotion or a cortizone cream to the affected area. If the rash develops on the face or genitals, seek medical attention.
It is also important to be aware that many plants are poisonous if eaten. Never eat a wild plant unless you know exactly what it is, know that it is edible, know that the part of the plant you are eating is edible, and know that that part of the plant is edible in its current stage of growth. All of these are important considerations, as some plants have no non-poisonous parts, some have edible and poisonous parts, and some edible parts become poisonous as the plant matures.
See the Edible Wild Plants honor for more information.
4. Show your ability to use a camp knife by demonstrating or explaining safety rules for its use and making shavings for tinder.
- Keep your blades sharp. A dull knife is difficult to push through wood, requiring additional force. When the wood finally gives, the blade keeps going.
- Always push the blade away from you, and constantly consider where the blade will go.
- Keep your fingers clear of the blade at all times.
- When splitting wood with a knife, do not hammer on the back of the blade. This weakens the attachment to the handle and deforms the blade.
- Close a pocket knife when it's not in use or when you are carrying it.
- Keep all blades away from heat. Heat will remove the temper, softening the blade. A soft blade will not hold an edge, making it nearly impossible to keep it sharp.
5. Prepare for an overnight camp with a group by making a list of personal items and group items that will be needed.
In addition to the items of clothing listed in requirement 2, you will also need several items of personal gear.
- Sleeping bag
- Foam ground pad or air mattress
- Pocket knife
- Quarter roll of toilet paper
- Coins (for campground showers)
- Bible and other reading material (you need to keep up with devotions)
- Notepad and pencil
- Toiletries (Toothbrush, toothpaste, shampoo, etc.)
- Towel and facecloth
- Mess Kit (unless it is included in the group's gear).
These are things that will be needed by the group. Usually, a Pathfinder club will purchase these items.
- First aid kits
- Medical release forms (signed by guardians)
- Sleeping tents - enough to separate the boys and girls.
- Kitchen tent/canopy
- Dining tent/canopy
- Camp stoves
- Fuel for the stoves
- Eating Utensils
- Mesh hosiery bags, clothes pins, and clothes line - the dishes go in the mesh bags after washing them, and then the bags clip to the clothesline. This allows them to dry. Each plate, cup, bowl, knife, fork, and spoon should be numbered with a permanent marker, and each camper (including staff) should be assigned a number. This will make every camper accountable for their own dishes.
- Cooking Supplies
- Pots and pans
- Serving/stirring spoons
- Salad bowls
- Can opener
- Cutting board
- Fire Equipment
- Matches or lighter
- Firewood, kindling, tinder
- Fire Extinguisher
- Storage tubs - These should be numbered, and an alphabetized list of the contents of each should be attached. If the tubs are clear, the lists can be taped to the inside and read from the outside. A master alphabetized list denoting in which tub an item belongs should also be kept in the kitchen. This makes finding things a lot easier. It does require discipline though. Storage tubs can double as dish sinks.
- Large water jugs
- Coolers and ice
- Tool kit
- Duct tape
Use the USDA's Food Pyramid for selecting foods. The chart here shows how much of each type of food Pathfinder-aged girls and boys should eat over the course of an entire day:
|Food Group||Grains||Vegetables||Fruits||Milk||Meat & Beans|
|10 year-old Male||7 oz||3 cups||2 cups||3 cups||6 ounces|
|10 year-old Female||6 oz||2.5 cups||2 cups||3 cups||5.5 ounces|
|11 year-old Male||7 oz||3 cups||2 cups||3 cups||6 ounces|
|11 year-old Female||6 oz||2.5 cups||2 cups||3 cups||5.5 ounces|
|12 year-old Male||8 oz||3 cups||2 cups||3 cups||6.5 ounces|
|12 year-old Female||7 oz||3 cups||2 cups||3 cups||6 ounces|
|13 year-old Male||9 oz||3.5 cups||2 cups||3 cups||6.5 ounces|
|13 year-old Female||7 oz||3 cups||2 cups||3 cups||6 ounces|
|14 year-old Male||10 oz||3.5 cups||2.5 cups||3 cups||7 ounces|
|14 year-old Female||8 oz||3 cups||2 cups||3 cups||6.5 ounces|
|15 year-old Male||10 oz||5 cups||2.5 cups||3 cups||7 ounces|
|15 year-old Female||8 oz||3 cups||2 cups||3 cups||6.5 ounces|
Of course you are free to select foods you like to eat, but here are a few ideas, including the food groups they belong to:
Suggested Breakfast Foods
- Pancakes (Grains)
- Oatmeal (Grains and Milk)
- Cold cereal (Grains and Milk)
- French Toast (Grains, Meat & Beans)
- Scrambled eggs (Meat & Beans)
- Vegetarian breakfast links (Meat & Beans)
- Bananas (Fruit)
- Hot Chocolate
Suggested Lunch and Supper Foods
- Haystacks (Grains, Meat & Beans, Dairy, Vegetables)
- Apples, Oranges, Bananas (Fruits)
- Grilled Cheese (Grains, Dairy)
- Vegetarian burgers (Grains, Meat & Beans, Vegetables)
- Vegetarian hotdogs (Grains, Meat & Beans)
- Vegetarian chili (Meat & Beans, Vegetables)
- Salad (Vegetables)
- Fruit juice (Fruit)
- Spaghetti with marinara sauce and Parmesan cheese (Grains, Vegetables, Dairy)
- Spaghetti with chili, onions, beans, and cheese (Grains, Vegetables, Dairy, and Meat & Beans)
- Peanut butter and jelly sandwiches (Grains, Meat & Beans, Fruit)
- Macaroni and Cheese (Grains, Dairy)
- Bread on a stick (Grains)
7. Complete the following while on an overnight camping trip:
a. Prepare ground properly for comfortable sleeping.
If using a tent, this has to be done before it is pitched, otherwise you lose access to the ground. Carefully inspect the area for rocks, sticks, stumps, and anything lumpy. Pine needles may be spread beneath the sleeping area for added comfort, but this is not a requirement. A small pebble in your thigh feels larger and larger as the night progresses, so take care when clearing the area. If you are planning to sleep on an air mattress, you still must clear the ground. Air mattresses have been known to deflate during the night, and if that's what you were relying on, you're not going to get much sleep. Furthermore, sticks and stones have a nasty habit of poking holes in a tent floor, and that compromises the water-tightness of your quarters.
b. Correctly pitch and strike a tent.
The details vary for every type of tent there is, so we provide only general tips here. First, carefully read the instructions that came with your tent. If it's a new tent, keep the instructions. You might be surprised how easy it is to forget which pole goes where.
First, unpack the tent and spread it on the ground. Some people like to put the ground cloth under the tent, and others like to put it inside. If you're going to put it beneath the tent, spread it out first. Before doing anything else, lie down on the ground cloth and test each sleeping area. If you feel a lump get rid of it now.
Then lay out the tent's canopy (that is, the cloth part that is not the fly). Find the door and orient it where you want it. Then stake it down. This will prevent the wind from blowing it away while you are trying to raise it. Slide the poles into the tubes, but do not raise the tent until the main poles (usually two of them) are all in place. Then raise them together. There are usually aluminum "hooks" located at the stake-down straps and shaped somewhat like a question mark. They are usually a couple of inches long, and are there to slip the pole ends over. Once all the pole are in place, throw the fly over the tent, being careful that the up side is up and the front side is to the front.
Flies often have elastic ropes that attach to plastic clips near the pole anchors, and they also generally have a rope at the four major corners. These should be anchored such that the fly is held off the tent's canopy, usually by staking them down or tying them to a tree. In the "olden days" a taut line hitch would be used to tighten these ropes, but these days the ropes are fitted with a three-hole plastic strap. The end of the rope passes through the bottom-most hole and is tied off with a stopper knot. From there, the rope goes to the anchor (tree, stake, etc.), and passes through the middle hole, and then again through the top hole. The plastic strap can then be slid up and down the rope to adjust the tension. Do not over-tension these ropes - they should have some give so that the tent can move a little with the wind. If they are too tight, the wind will rip the stakes from the ground or topple the tent.
If possible, do not strike the tent until it has dried. If you can, wait until the morning dew has evaporated. This is, of course, not always possible - it could be pouring rain when it's time to go, so you'll have to strike a wet tent. If your tent is wet when you strike it, you will need to set it up to let it dry as soon as you get back. Do not store a wet tent. It will be quickly ruined with mold and mildew.
To strike the tent first inspect the inside, being sure that everything has been removed. Check the loops in the ceiling (coat hangers tend to hide there) and the "stuff" bags on the walls (glasses and keys tend to hide there). Then sweep the tent. Once everything has been removed, pull off the fly, and stow it inside the tent (spread it out as flat as you can). If you stand next to the tent's door, you can pull the fly off the canopy and stuff it directly inside without it ever hitting the outside ground (and thus picking up dirt, leaves, and moisture). Stowing the fly inside also avoids the sad problem of cramming the canopy and poles into the tent's duffel, and then noticing the that the fly still needs to get crammed in there too. It's one less thing to roll up.
Then let down the poles. Carefully remove the poles from the canopy and fold them up. If the tent poles are sectional tubes with a long piece of elastic running through them all, it is better to push the poles out of the canopy rather than trying to pull them through. Pulling on them merely separates the sections and may break the elastic. Broken elastic will have to be repaired before the tent can be pitched again, because the elastic actually holds the poles together.
Once the poles have been stowed, remove the stakes and carefully fold the tent. Put everything back into the bag it came in.
c. Prepare a proper safe area for a campfire. Show proper use of wood tools in getting and preparing fuel for a fire.
There are many ways to prepare an area where you will build your campfire. If you are in an established camping area, look for a place where a fire has already been built. Do not start a fire in a new area if there are fire pits already available. If you must build a fire in a new area, dig out any sod first, and lay it aside. Keep it in the shade (perhaps beneath a vehicle) and water it every day so it does not dry out (perhaps with your rinse water). You will replace it before you leave. If there is no sod, clear out all the duff and debris so that only inorganic material is in the fire ring. Clear an area double the diameter of the intended fire. Then place stones inside this ring, building a small wall as it were. Try to fit the stones so that there are no gaps, or only small gaps. The stone ring should be six to eight inches high, and it should go all the way around the circle. Before you lay the fire, make sure you have a means to extinguish it nearby and ready to go. This could be a fire extinguisher, a bucket of sand, or a bucket of water. Means of extinguishing the fire should be on hand before the fire is lit. The fire ring should then be ready for a fire.
If camping at a commercial campground, bring your own wood or buy some at the camp store. Note that in many states, it is not legal to transport firewood across state lines into that state. It is sometimes not legal to transport firewood from one part of the same state into another part. This is an effort to control the spread of invasive insects such as the emerald ash borer, Asian longhorn beetle, etc. These are important laws to respect and obey.
At a campground, do not gather firewood from the surrounding forest! Most campgrounds have rules against this, and it is not so they can sell you expensive wood. In a heavily camped area, the forest simply cannot sustain that level of use. Rule breakers will already have depleted enough of the forest - don't add to their sins!
If there was already a fire ring present, if it is allowed, and you are in the wilderness, gather firewood well away from the campsite. Do not cut down any trees, live or dead. Dead trees are an important habitat for many forest creatures. Instead, look for fallen limbs that are not lying in full contact with the ground and use those. Wood that is lying fully on the ground will likely be too wet to use as firewood.
Once you have found a large, dead limb, it is time to cut it loose and drag it to the campsite. You can do this with either an axe, a hatchet, or a saw. Be sure you have firm footing before swinging an axe or a hatchet, and be sure no one is within six feet of you to the sides or to the rear, and within twelve feet of you towards your front. Axe heads have come off before (2 Kings 6:5), and they are very dangerous when they do. For this reason, it may be better to use a saw. A saw will also leave more of the wood intact with the log for burning rather than as wood chips that fly all over the place.
If you need to chop a log in half, do not lay it directly on the ground. Otherwise the axe blows will push the log into the ground. Instead, lay it on another small log (three inches in diameter is good). Strike the log to be cut at the point where it is in contact with the supporting log. Otherwise, the log may flip up and strike you or a bystander. This can cause a serious injury, so be watchful. Again, it is better to use a saw.
Unless the log you wish to split has been sawn and has a flat end, it will be very difficult to split it. Steady it on its end, and make sure it can stand on its own. Instruct everyone to clear away from you, and do not swing the axe if anyone is near. Grip the end of the axe handle with both hands, and gently lay the blade of the axe on the top of the log, on the edge nearest where you are standing. Fully extend your arms when you do this, and back up if necessary. Spread your feet apart by about the same distance as your shoulders are wide, and make sure your footing is firm. If you are right handed, slide your right hand towards the head of the axe as you draw it towards yourself. Take aim, and draw the axe over your head, bringing it down mightily as your right hand slides down the handle. The right hand should meet the left about the same time the axe strikes the log. Note how the axe strikes the wood farther away from you than where you were resting it at the beginning. This is why you should aim for the edge nearest you. If you overshoot the log, you will bring the handle down on the edge of the log and damage the axe. Do that enough, and you'll need to replace the handle.
When splitting a log, try to divide it into two equal masses. If you try to split off a smaller segment, the split will run out, and the piece you remove will be smaller on one end than on the other.
To split a small piece of wood (less than 10 cm in diameter), place the blade of a hatchet on the end of the log, raise the log and the hatchet together, and bring them down sharply on another log or a rock. When they strike the second log, the hatchet's momentum will drive it into the log. Raise the pair again, and strike repeatedly until the log splits apart. Do not steady the log with one hand and strike it with the other. If you miss the log and hit your hand, you will cause an unnecessary emergency.
d. Show how to protect your camp against animals, insects, and wet or bad weather.
The most important thing you must remember about storing food on a campout is that it should never be stored in a tent where people will sleep. Animals will smell your food, and if it's in your tent, they will find a way in. Instead, store the food outside the tent.
If you have a vehicle available at your campsite, you may store the food inside, but be sure to seal it tightly. A determined bear can get inside a locked vehicle, and if he decides that's what he wants to do, the car will sustain heavy damage. On the other end of the animal spectrum, are mice, which can also enter a locked car - even the trunk. It is therefore important to seal the food tightly so that the aroma does not draw unwanted attention from unwanted visitors.
If you do not have a vehicle or a trailer in which to store your food, you may place it in a bag and suspend it at least 10 feet (3 meters) above the ground by tying the bag to a rope and hanging it over a tree branch. Black bears can and do climb trees, so make sure the bag is well out of their reach - away from the trunk, and at least 4 feet (1.2 m) below the branch from which it is suspended.
Tightly sealing your food will not only lock the aromas in, it will also keep rain, snow, and sleet out. More than one camping breakfast has been ruined because the weather got into the pancake mix and oatmeal.
e. Show how to take proper care of the environment as you camp and leave the area with no trace of having been there.
"Take nothing but pictures, leave nothing but footprints" is pretty self-explanatory. It means you do not disturb nature while you are out enjoying it. If you see a pretty rock, leave it there for someone else to enjoy. If you eat a piece of candy on the trail, don't toss the wrapper — take it with you.
There are a few exception to both these rules. If you see trash, by all means, take it. Throw it in the trash when you get to a proper trash receptacle. Also be aware that footprints are not always harmless. Many tundra plants that take years to grow can be destroyed by a single footprint. Stay on the trail.
One of the most important ways people leave their mark on the land is by building a campfire. For "no trace" camping, bring a camp stove. Unfortunately, the campfire is one of the primary attractions for many people, so it is not easy to follow this advice. If your campsite has a fire ring or an existing fire pit, use that. If it does not and you must have a campfire, lay a small tarp on the ground and cover it with six to eight inches of mineral sand. Mineral sand is sand containing no organic material, and can be found on a beach or where a large tree has fallen over and raised a rootwad. The sand must be piled deep so the heat does not affect the tarp beneath. Stop putting new fuel on the fire well before you are ready to put it out, and push in the ends of sticks that have not yet burned. Allow them to burn down to white ash. When you are ready to leave, douse the fire well, and spread the ashes over a wide area. Return the sand to the place where you found it and pack up your tarp.
"Take nothing but pictures, leave nothing but footprints" is a good summary of the more common Leave No Trace 7 Principles. Memorize and practice these. 1) Plan ahead and prepare. 2) Travel and camp on durable surfaces. 3) Dispose of waste properly. 4) Leave what you find. 5) Minimize campfire impacts (be careful with fire). 6) Respect wildlife. 7) Be considerate of other visitors. © 1999 by the Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics: www.LNT.org.
Learn and practice the Leave No Trace 7 Principles:
1) Plan ahead and prepare. 2) Travel and camp on durable surfaces. 3) Dispose of waste properly. 4) Leave what you find. 5) Minimize campfire impacts (be careful with fire). 6) Respect wildlife. 7) Be considerate of other visitors.
© 1999 by the Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics: www.LNT.org.
8. Know eight things to do when lost.
The best advice about being lost, is - DON'T! And the best way to keep from getting lost is to stay on the path.
If you suddenly realize that you do not know where you are, then here are some things to do:
- Don't panic. You can't think clearly when you panic, so take a deep breath and relax.
- Pray. You may not know where you are, but God does, so talk to Him.
- Look around - maybe you'll recognize something that can guide you back to civilization (such as a blaze marking on a tree or rock, which indicates where the trail is).
- Listen for the sounds of other campers, traffic, waterfalls, rivers or anything that might help you find your way back. If you cannot see anything that you recognize and shows you how to easily get back or get help, STAY PUT.
- If you have a map and compass, try to locate your position by looking for hills, valleys or streams.
- You can try to relocate the trail, but you do not want to get any further away from your last known location. Mark your location with something - a backpack, hat, or a large rock - but make sure it's something unmistakable. Then venture 10 paces out, and circle your marker, all the while looking about to see if you recognize the trail or a landmark, and always keeping your marker in view. If you do not see anything you recognize, widen the circle by another 10 paces and repeat. Continue circling your marker at ever wider intervals, but stop when continuing would cause you to lose sight of the marker.
- If you cannot identify your location, STAY WHERE YOU ARE. If you are near a trail, stay there. It is a lot easier for someone to find you if you stay put.
- If you have a whistle, blow on it. If you don't have a whistle, yell loudly. Someone in your party might hear you. Repeat this every 15 minutes or so and be sure to listen after each sounding. Three of anything is universally recognized as a call for help, so three whistle blasts, or three shouts.
- Do not climb a tree or steep hillside. It may seem like a good idea, but it is not worth the risk of falling and getting hurt. The chances of you seeing anything helpful are low.
- If it's an hour or less until sunset, prepare to spend a comfortable evening. Make a shelter, and light a fire. Things will look better in the morning, and your fire may attract a rescuer. Remember, stay where you are.
To learn more on this topic, review the Hug-A-Tree education program created by the National Association for Search and Rescue.
9. Camp for a continuous three days and two nights, sleeping each night under the stars or in a tent. Be actively involved in cooking at least two of the meals.
A three-day campout often starts on Friday evening and ends Sunday at lunchtime. This adds up to six meals, so you will need to divide your campers into no more than three smaller groups. Each camper in your party should be assigned kitchen duty. It is easier to remember which meal a person is responsible if they are assigned the same meal every day - for instance, you might designate a breakfast group, and they will cook all breakfasts. However, if your group is attempting to earn several camping honors at once, you should look at the types of meals each person is required to cook (one-pot, boiling, frying, reflector oven, etc.) and vary the assignments based on that.
10. Considering the things learned in this honor and the camping done, what is the meaning and the reason of the Pathfinder Camping Code?
- I will camp only where camping is allowed.
- I will keep my campsite clean at all times, and I will leave it cleaner than when I found it.
- I will never leave my campfire unattended, and when I leave I will be sure that it is entirely out.
- I will never use my knife or ax to cut, mar or scar live trees.
- I will never pick wild flowers without permission.
- I will never cut trails while hiking.
- I will never pollute a lake or stream.
- I will always respect the privacy of other campers.
- I will always be polite and courteous.
- I will respect all signs, authority, rules and private property.
- I will always conduct myself as a Pathfinder and a Christian and as a child of God.
- I will always leave a campsite knowing that I am welcome to return.
- Hug-A-Tree Program. National Association for Search and Rescue. 2020. https://nasar.org/education/hug-a-tree/.