|*Edits to the Pathfinder Wiki will be disabled on July 27, 2021 in preparation for an upgrade. The upgrade is scheduled to take place on August 10, 2021. During the upgrade, we expect the Wiki to be available only intermittently. Once the upgrade is complete, users will again be able to perform edits. Thanks!|
*Las ediciones al Wiki de Conquistadores se desactivarán el 27 de julio de 2021 en preparación para una actualización. La actualización está programada para el 10 de agosto de 2021. Durante la actualización, esperamos que el Wiki esté disponible solo de forma intermitente. Una vez que se complete la actualización, los usuarios podrán volver a realizar ediciones. ¡Gracias!
Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Recreation/Camping Skills IV
|Camping Skills IV|
| General Conference
|| Skill Level 2
Year of Introduction: 1986
- 1 1. Be in at least the 8th grade.
- 2 2. Plan and execute a one-hour Sabbath camping activity other than worship to make the Sabbath a meaningful experience.
- 3 3. Write a 200-word report or give a two-minute oral presentation on the preservation of the wilderness, discussing etiquette and conservation.
- 4 4. Plan your menu for a two-day camping trip and estimate the cost.
- 5 5. Participate in two weekend campouts.
- 6 6. Start a fire in wet weather, knowing where to get tinder and how to keep your fire going.
- 7 7. Know the wood best suited for making a quick, hot fire.
- 8 8. Know the wood best suited for making coals for cooking.
- 9 9. Demonstrate how to split firewood.
- 10 10. Demonstrate the proper care and storage of camp foods and how to build various caches to protect food from animals.
- 11 11. Prepare a camp dinner with soup, vegetables, entree, and drink, all of which must be cooked.
- 12 12. Bake your food in a reflector oven.
- 13 13. Purify water by three different methods.
- 14 Note: The tent color for Camping Skills #4 is silver.
- 15 References
Earning this honor meets a requirement for:
This Honor is a component of the Wilderness Master Award.
|Investiture Achievement requirements for RANGER Outdoor Living which require completion of this Honor.|
1. Be in at least the 8th grade.
Camping Skills IV has been designed so that it is within the capabilities of Pathfinders who are in grade 8 or higher.
2. Plan and execute a one-hour Sabbath camping activity other than worship to make the Sabbath a meaningful experience.
There are many ways to fulfill this requirement.
Themed Scavenger Hunt
A themed scavenger hunt is one option. Have your Pathfinders choose a theme, and then come up with as many items as they think can be found at your campsite and which relate in some way to the theme. Have them make a list of these items ahead of time, and hand the lists out when the activity begins. You may tell them that all the items relate to a theme, but do not tell them what the theme is. Give them 40 minutes to find all the items, and tell them to meet again at the end of that time period. When they return, ask them if they have guessed the theme. If they do not guess correctly, tell them what the theme is. Then have each Pathfinder working on the honor take turns calling for the items. When someone produces it, the Pathfinder will explain how that item relates to the theme. Be sure to draw a spiritual lesson from the activity. Close with a prayer.
Drawing or Photographing Nature
Many of the honors in the Nature category have the requirement to collect, photograph, or draw a number of creatures (plant or animal) found in nature, such as flowers, ferns, insects, etc. The Pathfinders presenting this activity should bring a field guide so that the chosen creatures can be identified. They may also bring samples of these items with them in case you are unable to find them around your campsite.
If you choose to have your Pathfinders sketch these items, be sure to bring enough notebooks and pencils (some honors require colored drawings - if so, bring colored pencils) for everyone. If you choose to have them take photos, you will probably want each Pathfinder to bring a camera (disposable cameras are ideal for this).
Collecting specimens is no longer encouraged, as it ends the life of the creature. Furthermore, many species are now endangered, and collecting them is not only unethical, it is illegal as well.
You can also mix photography and sketching. You may wish to have the group set out looking for specimens, and photograph all they can find. Then return and sketch the remainder. If you have only one or two cameras, you may find that this works well for you.
Skit with Props
Choose several Bible stories and divide your Pathfinders into at least two groups of three to eight individuals. Assign each group a Bible story and tell them where it may be found in the Bible. Have each come up with a skit to be presented to the rest of the group. Provide each group with random props and make it a contest between each group to see who can use the most of them. The props should be really off-the-wall so that the kids have to really think in order to use the item. Things like these do not have an obvious application, and that will make them stretch their imaginations:
- Ping pong paddle
- White board eraser
- Piece of fruit
- Cotton balls
- Measuring cup
- Toilet paper tube
- Ball of yarn
- A shoe
- Binder clip
- Compact Disc (blanks are cheap)
- Water bottle
Don't limit the props to this list or feel compelled to use anything on it - it's just a suggestion to get you started. See what you can find around the house, church, or campsite and press it into service for this activity. If possible, make each group's prop kit identical. Let everyone know how much time they have to put their skits together. Fifteen minutes should be sufficient. The remainder of the hour will be used to present the skits.
Go on a nature hike. Go along a stream and skip stones. Look for animal tracks and make plaster casts of them (your Companion class will thank you later).
For this activity you will need to come up with several hiding places around the vicinity of the camp site and clues to each hiding place written on index cards. The cards are hidden. Each clue will direct the finder to the next clue (in other words, don't hide a clue at the location it hints at). Each clue should incorporate a passage from the Bible. For instance, the clue might say "Psalm 23:5, first part" which reads "You set a table before me in the presence of my enemies." This clue would direct the seekers to a picnic table where the next card is hidden. Another might hint "Psalm 119:105" which reads "Your word is a lamp to my feet and a light to my path." The clue could point the seeker to either the lantern (i.e., lamp) or to a path. They will have to check both places. It would be a good idea to bring a Concordance on this camping trip.
If you have a large group it would be better to make two copies of the cards, and make the clues circular (meaning that the last hiding place points back to the first hiding place). The first set is hidden around the camp site, one card per hiding place. The second set it handed out to the campers, one card per person, or per team (the teams should not have more than three people on them). That way everyone will start (and end) at a different point. If everyone starts at the same point, the campers with the strongest personalities will end up doing all the work and everyone else will just follow them - that's not fun. When the campers find their original clue, they have completed the quest.
When everyone is finished, ask them which one they liked the best, which one was hardest, easiest, etc.
3. Write a 200-word report or give a two-minute oral presentation on the preservation of the wilderness, discussing etiquette and conservation.
Learning preservation, etiquette, and conservation is a requirement for Camping Skills I and II, so you can have the Pathfinders learning this honor review this material and present it to the younger ones.
Review and practice the Leave No Trace 7 Principles:
- Plan ahead and prepare.
- Travel and camp on durable surfaces.
- Dispose of waste properly.
- Leave what you find.
- Minimize campfire impacts (be careful with fire).
- Respect wildlife.
- Be considerate of other visitors.
© 1999 by the Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics
Be considerate of other campers. When purchasing tents, buy ones in muted colors that will blend in with the environment. If most of your camping is done at camp grounds frequented by others, blues, greens, and browns are preferred to reds and oranges. People go camping to escape the garishness of the city—leave that behind. However, if you camp in isolated places, bright and flashy colors make it easier to find your tent again if you leave it temporarily.
More importantly, when traveling in areas that allow hunting, wear bright colors such as orange to alert other's to your presence. An orange vest or hat is common.
Be mindful of the noise level made in your camp. Don't be a nuisance. If camping in the wilderness, be sure to make your camp out of sight of the trail. Most National Forests have guidelines for where you can camp in relation to the trail. Find out what those guidelines are and follow them.
Do not enter anyone else's camp site without their permission, especially when traveling to or from your campsite to other places on the campground. It is very rude to cut through another camp. Use the road or trail, even if it will take longer.
Leave the area cleaner than you found it. If you are leading a group of youngsters on a campout, have a contest before you pile back in your cars to go home: see who can collect the most litter (define "most" first though - it can mean by volume, by weight, or by item count). Offer a prize to the one who collects the most (such as getting to choose which seat he or she will sit in on the trip home).
Use the USDA's food pyramid to choose a balanced menu:
|Food Group||Grains||Vegetables||Fruits||Milk||Meat & Beans|
|10 year-old Male||7 oz||3 cups||2 cups||3 cups||6 ounces|
|10 year-old Female||6 oz||2.5 cups||2 cups||3 cups||5.5 ounces|
|11 year-old Male||7 oz||3 cups||2 cups||3 cups||6 ounces|
|11 year-old Female||6 oz||2.5 cups||2 cups||3 cups||5.5 ounces|
|12 year-old Male||8 oz||3 cups||2 cups||3 cups||6.5 ounces|
|12 year-old Female||7 oz||3 cups||2 cups||3 cups||6 ounces|
|13 year-old Male||9 oz||3.5 cups||2 cups||3 cups||6.5 ounces|
|13 year-old Female||7 oz||3 cups||2 cups||3 cups||6 ounces|
|14 year-old Male||10 oz||3.5 cups||2.5 cups||3 cups||7 ounces|
|14 year-old Female||8 oz||3 cups||2 cups||3 cups||6.5 ounces|
|15 year-old Male||10 oz||5 cups||2.5 cups||3 cups||7 ounces|
|15 year-old Female||8 oz||3 cups||2 cups||3 cups||6.5 ounces|
Of course you are free to select foods you like to eat, but here are a few ideas, including the food groups they belong to:
Suggested Breakfast Foods
- Pancakes (Grains)
- Oatmeal (Grains and Milk)
- Cold cereal (Grains and Milk)
- French Toast (Grains, Meat & Beans)
- Scrambled eggs (Meat & Beans)
- Vegetarian breakfast links (Meat & Beans)
- Bananas (Fruit)
- Hot Chocolate
Suggested Lunch and Supper Foods
- Haystacks (Grains, Meat & Beans, Dairy, Vegetables)
- Apples, Oranges, Bananas (Fruits)
- Grilled Cheese (Grains, Dairy)
- Vegetarian burgers (Grains, Meat & Beans, Vegetables)
- Vegetarian hotdogs (Grains, Meat & Beans)
- Vegetarian chili (Meat & Beans, Vegetables)
- Salad (Vegetables)
- Fruit juice (Fruit)
- Spaghetti with marinara sauce and Parmesan cheese (Grains, Vegetables, Dairy)
- Spaghetti with chili, onions, beans, and cheese (Grains, Vegetables, Dairy, and Meat & Beans)
- Peanut butter and jelly sandwiches (Grains, Meat & Beans, Fruit)
- Macaroni and Cheese (Grains, Dairy)
- Bread on a stick (Grains)
Estimating the cost
To estimate the cost of the food on your menu, you will first need to estimate the quantity. This can be done with a spreadsheet, or by pencil and paper. First consider how much food your average camper will eat from each meal. Then figure out how much you will need for everyone to be able to eat the average amount. Some will eat more, but some will eat less. For example, if you are serving grilled cheese sandwiches, you will need two slices of bread and one slice of cheese per sandwich. Younger Pathfinders will usually eat two of these, but teens will easily eat three. Picky eaters may eat none or only one. It's up to you to guess how may each person will eat. Then multiply it out to see how many slices of bread you will need. There are usually 20 slices of bread in a loaf. Before figuring out how many loaves of bread you will need, make sure you consider every meal that will use bread (think French toast, PB&J, etc.). When you know the total number of slices you will need, then figure out how many loaves you will need. If your calculations show that you need 82 slices of bread, don't round it down to 80, or someone may not get a sandwich. Always round it up to the next loaf, so 82 slices will require five loaves of bread.
Do the same with each ingredient in your menu. The more you do this, the better your estimates will be. The goal is to come home with very little left over, as this will tell you that everyone got enough to eat, but you didn't waste money on food that will spoil anyhow.
5. Participate in two weekend campouts.
Weekend campout are a lot of fun, especially if the campers have some knowledge of camping! Once every five years, Seventh-day Adventist Divisions hold a division-wide camporee, where people from all over their division attend. Many clubs from outside the division also attend. In 2009, the North American Division held a camporee in Oshkosh Wisconsin, and it was attended by 33,000 Pathfinders! The NAD also held camporees in Oshkosh in 1999 and in 2004, and at other locations prior to that.
Within the Divisions are Unions, and many of them hold camporees every five years as well. Union Camporees are held between Division Camporees. Unions are groups of local Conferences. Many Pathfinder clubs attend Conference Camporees every year - and some conferences have camporees twice a year (once in the fall, and again in the spring). In addition to these camporees, some clubs go camping by themselves as a club. This is a special bonding time for members of the local Pathfinder club. Of course, Pathfinders also like to camp with their friends and families, and those trips can also be used to meet this requirement. Remember, the more you know about camping, the more fun it is!
6. Start a fire in wet weather, knowing where to get tinder and how to keep your fire going.
The hardest problem to overcome when trying to build a fire in wet weather is finding dry fuel. Even in the wettest weather, dry fuel can be found by splitting open a log and taking the wood from the center of it. You can get both your kindling and your fuel from this source. Another place to find dry fuel is on the underside of dead branches - especially those still on a tree.
Before you begin gathering your fuel, you will need to set up a dry place to store it as you collect it. A tarp can be used for this if you lay it out on the ground, place the wood on it, and fold the tarp over it. This will keep the wood off the wet ground and keep rain off it as well. If it is windy, you should place a few rocks on top to hold down the tarp.
Once you have your fuel, you can begin gathering tinder. If you have some with you, you're good to go, but remember, that because your kindling may be slightly wet, you will need more than the usual amount of tinder. If you need to collect it, there are still several options for finding some. Milkweed seed pods are fairly waterproof, and the fibers inside are pretty easy to ignite. Pocket lint is another possibility, but you may have difficulty getting enough of it to light your kindling. You can also make wood shavings from the same wood you're using as kindling. If available, birch bark can be lit even when wet.
Once you have your fuel, kindling, and tinder, you are ready to lay the fire. This is done as with any other fire. You may wish to place a tea candle in the tinder pile as well, as this will help keep things going long enough for the kindling to catch.
Once your fire is lit and the fuel is burning, you can lay wet logs next to the fire to dry them out before trying to use them. The heat from a good hot fire can drive the moisture out of even the wettest logs. You may need to turn them over periodically to dry all sides.
7. Know the wood best suited for making a quick, hot fire.
Wood from conifers (pine, fir, spruce, etc.) contains a lot of highly flammable sap, so it burns both hot and quick. It is excellent for starting a fire. However, it does not leave a bed of coals, so it is unsuitable for cooking.
8. Know the wood best suited for making coals for cooking.
Most hardwoods will leave a good bed of coals, but hickory, mesquite, and oak, are among the best.
9. Demonstrate how to split firewood.
Unless the log you wish to split has been sawn and has a flat end, it will be very difficult to split it. Steady it on its end, and make sure it can stand on its own. Instruct everyone to clear away from you, and do not swing the axe if anyone is near. Grip the end of the axe handle with both hands, and gently lay the blade of the axe on the top of the log, on the edge nearest where you are standing. Fully extend your arms when you do this, and back up if necessary. Spread your feet apart by about the same distance as your shoulders are wide, and make sure your footing is firm. If you are right handed, slide your right hand towards the head of the axe as you draw it towards yourself. Take aim, and draw the axe over your head, bringing it down mightily as your right hand slides down the handle. The right hand should meet the left about the same time the axe strikes the log. Note how the axe strikes the wood farther away from you than where you were resting it at the beginning. This is why you should aim for the edge nearest you. If you overshoot the log, you will bring the handle down on the edge of the log and damage the axe. Do that enough, and you'll need to replace the handle.
When splitting a log, try to divide it into two equal masses. If you try to split off a smaller segment, the split will run out, and the piece you remove will be smaller on one end than on the other.
To split a small piece of wood (less than 10 cm in diameter), place the blade of a hatchet on the end of the log, raise the log and the hatchet together, and bring them down sharply on another log or a rock. When they strike the second log, the hatchet's momentum will drive it into the log. Raise the pair again, and strike repeatedly until the log splits apart. Do not steady the log with one hand and strike it with the other. If you miss the log and hit your hand, you will cause an unnecessary emergency.
10. Demonstrate the proper care and storage of camp foods and how to build various caches to protect food from animals.
The most important thing you must remember about storing food on a campout is that it should never be stored in a tent where people will sleep. Animals will smell your food, and if it's in your tent, they will find a way in. Instead, store the food outside the tent.
If you have a vehicle available at your campsite, you may store the food inside, but be sure to seal it tightly. A determined bear can get inside a locked vehicle, and if he decides that's what he wants to do, the car will sustain heavy damage. On the other end of the animal spectrum, are mice, which can also enter a locked car - even the trunk. It is therefore important to seal the food tightly so that the aroma does not draw unwanted attention from unwanted visitors.
If you do not have a vehicle or a trailer in which to store your food, you may place it in a bag and suspend it at least 10 feet (3 meters) above the ground by tying the bag to a rope and hanging it over a tree branch. Black bears can and do climb trees, so make sure the bag is well out of their reach - away from the trunk, and at least 4 feet (1.2 m) below the branch from which it is suspended.
11. Prepare a camp dinner with soup, vegetables, entree, and drink, all of which must be cooked.
Of course you can make any dish you like for any of these, but we'll list suggestions anyhow. You can combine chili, kidney beans, and spaghetti to make Cincinnati Chili. Each camper starts with a layer of spaghetti, then adds a layer of chili, then a layer of beans. Chopped onions and cheese can also be added. It is delicious.
In a 5-quart soup pot, sauté the onions and garlic in margarine until the onions are clear. Add the tomatoes, kidney beans, tomato paste, green pepper, veggie crumbles, and chili powder and bring to a boil. Turn down the heat, cover, and simmer for 20 minutes, stirring occasionally.
Melt the butter in the soup pot while you peel and chop the onion. Add the onion to the pot and sauté until tender. Add the corn, Tuno, broth, water, and milk, then stir in the potato flakes. Allow it to heat through. Add the dill weed and pepper.
Most any vegetable can be prepared by heating it in a pot. This can be done over a campfire with a camp crane or with a camp stove.
- Kidney beans
- Green beans
- Corn on the cob (can be boiled or wrapped in foil and roasted in a campfire)
- Veggie Burgers
- Veggie dogs
The drink must be "cooked" too, so try one of these (or something else)
- Hot chocolate
- Apple Cider
- Herb Tea
12. Bake your food in a reflector oven.
A reflector oven is as simple as a cardboard box lined on the inside with aluminum foil. Run wire through the box to create an oven rack. Make sure the rack is horizontal when the box is placed on its side. Put the box next to a bed of hot coals with the opening facing the heat, but not so near as to ignite the box. Put whatever you wish to bake on the rack. Heat from the coals will bake whatever you put inside the box. There are countless variations on this theme, including the practice of completely removing one side of the box and tilting it at a 45° angle. You can prop the box up with rocks or logs, or build legs into it.
You can also construct an oven out of sheet metal, aluminum flashing, or large tin cans as shown below. This tin can oven was constructed by a Pathfinder leader, and tested by Pathfinders in the field.
13. Purify water by three different methods.
- Water can be purified by boiling for five to ten minutes.
- Iodine is added to water as a solution, crystallized, or in tablets. The iodine kills many -- but not all -- of the most common pathogens present in natural fresh water sources. Carrying iodine for water purification is an imperfect but light weight solution for those in need of field purification of drinking water. There are kits available in camping stores that include an iodine pill and a second pill that will remove the iodine taste from the water after it has been disinfected.
- Chlorine-based bleach may be used for emergency disinfection. Add 2 drops of 5% bleach per liter or quart of clear water, then let stand covered for 30 to 60 minutes. After this it may be left open to reduce the chlorine smell and taste.
- Water filters are also used to make water potable. These filters are usually small, portable and light (1-2 pounds), and filter water by working a hand pump. Dirty water is pumped via a tube through the filter, then out into another flexible tube and directly into a water bottle. These types of filters work to remove bacteria, protozoa and cysts, all of which can cause disease. These water filters should not be confused with devices or tablets that are water purifiers. Water purifiers satisfy higher EPA standards, and also remove viruses, such as hepatitis A and rota virus, among others.
Note: The tent color for Camping Skills #4 is silver.
|Blue||Friend||Camping Skills I|
|Red||Companion||Camping Skills II|
|Green||Explorer||Camping Skills III|
|Silver||Ranger||Camping Skills IV|